Recruitment Of Protein Complexes To Genes By Eukaryotic Activators 537

Activators Recruit the Transcriptional Machinery to the Gene 537 Box J 7-2 Chromatin /mmitnopreaptfiition 539 Activators also Recruit Nucleosome Modifiers that Help the Transcription Machinery Bind at the Promoter 540 Action at a Distance: Loops and Insulators 540 Appropriate Regulation of Some Groups of Genes Requires Locus Control Regions 543 SIGNAL INTEGRATION AND COMBINATORIAL CONTROL 544

Activators Work Together Synergistically to Integrate Signals 544 Signal Integration: the HO Gene Is Controlled by Two Regulators; One Recruits Nucleosome Modifiers and the Other Recruits Mediator 546 Signal Integration: Cooperative Binding of Activators at the Human ^-Interferon Gene 546 Combinatorial Control Lies at the Heart of the Complexity and Diversity of Eukaryotes 547 Combinatorial Control of the Ma tiny-Type Genes from Saccfiaromyegs cerevisiae 548 TRANSCRIPTION AL REPRESSORS 549 SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND THE CONTROL OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS 551 Signals Are Often Communicated to Transcriptional Regulators through Signal Transduction Pathways 551 Signals Control the Activities of Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulators in a Variety of Ways 552

Activators and Repressors Sometimes Come in Pieces 555

GENE "SILENCING" BY MODIFICATION OF HtSTONES AND DNA 556 Silencing in Yeast Is Mediated by Deacetylation and Methylation of Hisrones 556 Hisrone Modifications and the Hislone Code Hypothesis 558

DNA Methylation Is Associated with Silenced Genes in Mammalian Cells 558 Some States of Gene Expression Are Inherited through Cell Division even when the Initiating Signal Is No Longer Present 560 Box 17-3 A Lysogens and the Epigenetic Switch 562 EUKARYOTIC GENE REGULATION AT STEPS AFTER TRANSCRIPTION INITIATION 562 Some Activators Control Transcriptional Elongation rather than Initiation 562 The Regulation of Alternative mRNA Splicing Can Produce Different Protein Products in Different Cell Types 563 Expression of the Yeast Transcriptional Activator Gcn4 Is Controlled ar the Level of Translation 565 RN AS IN GENE REGULATION 567 Double-Stran*?ed RNA Inhibits Expression of Genes Homologous to that RNA 568 Short Interfering RN As (siRNAs) Are Produced from dsRNA and Direct Machinery that Switches Off Genes in Various Ways 568 MicroRNAs Control the Expression of some Genes during Development 570 SumiTmry 571 BiblioRT-atjfvy 572

chapter 18

Gene Regulation during Development 575

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