Photos From The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Archives

Vernon Ingram, Marshall Nirenberg, and Matthias Staehelin, 1963 Symposium on Synthesis and Structure of Macromole-cules. Ingram demonstrated that genes control the amino acid sequence of proteins; the mutation causing sicHe-rcli anemia produces a single amino acid change in the hemogicbirt protein {Chapter 2). Nirenberg was key in unrav eling the genetic code, using protein synthesis directed by artificial RNA templates in vitro {Chapters 2 and 14). For this achievement, he shared in the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medtnne. Staehelin worked on the small RMA molecules, tRIXiAs. which translate the genetic rode into ammo acid sequences of proteins {Chapters 2 and 14).

Raymond Appleyard, George Bowen, and Martha Chase, 1953 Symposium on Viruses. Appleyard and Bowen, both phage genetiosts, are here shown with Chase, who, in 1952, together with Alfred Hershey, did the simple experiment that finally convinced most people that the genetic material is DNA (Chapter 2)

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