M

M phase (mitosis), 142, 14.1 Macho-1, 584, 584 MacLeod. Colin M., 20 macromolecuies, 51-52, 69-92 macromutations, 15 maintenance motliylases, 561 major grooves, 103-6, 105, 495 major late promoter, 398

mammals, see also chimpanzees; humans: mouse conserved mechanisms. 531-37 FGF genes, 615 I Iok genes, 628

signal transduction pathways, 553 MAP kinase pathways, 552 map units. 13 mariner elements, 335-53 masking proteins, 554-55 mass spectrometry (MS/MS), 676-77. 678 MAT tocus, 284, 286 mating-type loci, 285, 285-86, 580-83 mating-type switching, 2B6-88, 287, 581 Matthaei. Heinrich, 36 maxillipeds. 631 Mciyr, Ernst, 16 McCarty, Macjyn, 20 McClintock, Barbara, 11 Mem complex, 226 Mec.hfuusm of Mendellan Heredity, 13 Mediator Complex. 368 - 70, 369, S37, 538, 544, 546 meiosis chromosome number and, 148-49 chromosome segregation during, 278-84 DNA dynamics, 279 gene crossing over. 11 phases, 149 meiotic cell Cycle. 148

meiolic recombination, 280, 282, 283-84, 289 melting point, DNA. 110 Mendel, Gregor, G-8, 687

Mendel's first law. see Principle of Independent Segregat Mendel's second law. see Principle of Independent Asso mercaptoethanot, 675 mercury ions, 501-2 MerR, 486. 500. 501-2, 502

merT gene, 500, 501 merT promoter. 480, 502 Meselson, Matthew, 26, 260, 692 mesoderm differentiation, 595 messenger RNA (mRNA), 123 alternative splicing, 583ā€”85 assembly, 436 broken, 452-56 circularizatioti, 438, 438 degradation, 457 discovery, 33 localization, 576 monocistronic, 413 polycislronit:, 4J 3 premature stop oodons. 456. 457 recruitment in prokaryoles, 433 structure, 414 synthetic, 465-66 translation and, 411, 412-15 translation-dependent regulation, 452-57 translocation, 444 -46 transport, 406-8, 4(17 Met-RNAtM*\ 435

metabolism, "inborn errors" in, 16 metal ions, 187, 349 nietaphase, 147, 148, 149 methyl groups, removal, 248 N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis by, Z44 methylatiun. 218, 5S6-58 methylguanine, 415 Mica experiment. 104 mice chromosome count, 705 embryagenesis, 706 FGF genes, 615 FOXP2 gene, 637, 638 genome, 636-37 genome content, 671 homeotic gene complexes, 629 lumbar mutant, 629 synteny, 670 microarray grids, 575 577 nucrocuccal nuclease (Mnase), 151. 152, 152 microinjection, 767 microRNAs (iniRNAs). 570 microsatellite DNA. 137 microsatellites, 237 microscopy, chromosomes, 150 microtubule organizing centers, 142-43 microtubules. 142.582- 83 Migl, 550

minor grooves, 103, 105, 366-67

mismatch repair system, 238-42, 239, 242, 247, 290

missense mutations, 470

mitochondria. 478

mitochondrial genome, 475-77

mitosis. 142, 143. 146, 147

mitotic cell division, 141-43. 142. 695

mitotic spindles. 142

model organisms. 681-711

molecular biology techniques, 643-79

monocistronic mRNAs, 413

monovalent attachment, 146 148

Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 10, 12, 699

morphogens, 578, 579, 588-89, 590- 99

morphology, 620-30 morula, 706 mosaics, 702 mouse virus polyoma, 21 Mrell protein. 283 MRX protein, 282-83 MSH protein. 242 Mu genome, 331 Mu transposons, 689 MuA proteins, 331, 332-33, 333 MuB proteins. 331, 332-33,333 Mullfcr, Hermann Jā€ž 10, 13,16, 700 Mus musculus (mouse), see also mice as model, 681, 705-11 patched mutants, 705 MusSl protein, 284 mutability, repair and, 235-58 mutagenesis, insertional, 690 mutagens. 242-44. 243 mutant genes, 10, 14. see also specific genes mutations, see also specific mutants definition, 15, 235 genetic variability and, 15-16 hydrolytic damage, 244 induction, 16 nature of, 236-37 permanent incorporation of, 238 rate of, 236-37 MutH protein, 238, 240-41 MutL protein, 238, 240-41 MntS-DNA complex, 240 MutS protein, 238, 240-41. 242 myoglobin folding, 79 myriapuds, 630

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