Melvin Calvin, Francis Crick, George Gamnw, and James Watson, 1963 Symposium on Synthesis and Structure of Macro-molecules. Calvin won the 196) Nobel Prize for his work on CO? assimilation by plants. For their proposed structure of DNA, Cnck and Watson shared in the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine (Chapter 2). Gamow, a physicist attracted to the problem of the genetic code (Chapters 2 and 14), founded an informal group of like-minded scientists called the RNA Tie Club. (He is wearing the club tie-whtch he designed-irt this picture.)

Calvin Bridges, 1954 Symposium on Aspects of Growth. Bridges (shown reading the newspaper) was part of T.H. Morgan's famous "fly group" that pioneered the development of the fruit fly Drosophila as a model genetic or gantsm (Chapters 1 and 21). With him is Dr. T. Buckholti

Max Perutz. 1971 Symposium on Structure and Function of Proteins at the Three-Dimensional Level. Perutz shared, with John Kendrew, the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry; using X ray crystallography, and after 25 years of effort, they were the first to solve the atomic structures of proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin respectively (Chapter 5).

loan Steitz and Fritz Lipmann, 1969 Symposium on The Mechanism of Protein Synthesis. Steitz's research focused on the structure and function of RNA molecules, particularly those involved in RNA splicing (Chapter 13) and she was an author of the previous edition of this book. Lipmann showed that the high energy phosphate group tn ATP is the source of energy that drives many biological processes (Chapter 4). For this he shared in the 1953 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

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