E

El protein. 76 E sites, 430

Early (E) complex. 385 ecdvsozoans. 614-15

EeolU restriction enzyme, 650, 650. 651, 651

Edmau degradation. 676. 677

E2F release. 554

EF-Ts. 446

EF-Tu. 441. 442. 446, 448 eggs. 576, 600. 706-7 elF2, 435 elFSB, 435 etF4F, 436. 437 electron pairs. 45 electronegative atoms. 45 electrophoresis, 120. 120, 214-15, 648 49. 6 electropositive atoms, 45 electrostatic forces. 42-43, 197-98 elongating polymerase, 359 elongation Pnl U. 370-71

RNA synthesis before. 358-5y transcription cycle, 350, 351, 352, 562 63 translation. 440 48 elongation factors, 440

EF-G, 444-46, 445. 446,450 EF-G and RRF combination, 451 EF-Ts, 446

EF-Tu, 441, 442. 446, 448 OTP exchange. 446 structural Comparison. 446 embryogenesis. 590-609, 592, 7(16 embryos, 576. 578. 5H7-88, 634 empty target sites. 330 EMS (ethy lme.1 hanesul foliate). 700 En/lnv expression, 634 end replication problem, 22B-30. 22S, 232 endunucleases, 649-51 undonucleolytic cleavage, 248 engrailed/engrailed homozygous mutants, 702 enhsnceosomes. 546, 547 enhancers. 530, 605-6, 608-fi entropy. 44

environmental factors, 242-44 enzymes, see also specific enzymes activation energies and. 57 allosterir transfemnations and, UB attachment to substrates. 53 reaction rates and, 57 Ephrnssi, Boris. 17 epigenelic inheritance, 709—J 1 epjgenetic regulation, 560-62 epigenetic switches, 562 epitopes, 675

equilibrium constants (Ji,.,,) biosynthetic reactions, 60 chemical bonds. 43 energies of activation and, 57 free energy and, 44 free energy change and, 5/ ERCCt —SPF, 251 Escherichia c.oli uraBAD operon. 503-4 CII protein stability, 522-23 circular chromosome. Ill DnaA protein, 214 gal genes. 4i>9 galFgenes. 499 genome. 134 as model. 681, 687

model for initiation of DNA replication. 220 MutS protein. 23fi nucleotide excision repair enzymes. 251 oriC. 213

phage A regulation. 512 -25 regulation of replication. 217-21 replisome, 210 -12 ribosomal protein upercms, 51 i trp leader sequence, 413 XerO function. 297 XerO function, ¿97 EST (expressed sequence tags), 668 ethidium Ions, 120-22, 122. 246. 648-49 Eultacteria. 275 eukaryotes

Chromosomal DNA. 135-36 chromosome makeup, 131. 132 combinatorial control, 547 49 effect uf antibiotics, 453 gene density in genome, 133 gene regulation ill, 529-73 genes. 379

homologous recombination, 277-78

initiation of DNA replication, 223-28

protein synthesis, 28, 30

RerA homolog, 275

ribosomes, 426, 435-36

start codons, 412

transcription. 363-76, 530, 538, 549-51 translation, 424 leveteven-skippedgene. 604. 604 -8. 605. 606. 672. evolution conserved intron sequences, 401 conserved mechanisms, 53 I -37 of diversity, 613-41 exon shuffling, 403 gene conservation, 614-19 gene duplication. 616-17 gene expression changes, 619-20 genome, 635-39 human origins, 635 39 insect wings, 632-35

Mediator Complex conservation, 369, 369-70 morphological changes, 630-35 !« genes, 618 RNA in, )26 excision repair systems, 247 exon shuffling, 400 403 exonic splicing fnliancers (ESEsJ. 393. 396 exons, 379, 402 exonucleases DNA Pol 1, ZOO proo freading by 1 il 1 - 92 192 removal of mismatched DNA, 242 exponential phase of growth. 687 expression vectors. 5I>4, 655 extracellular matrix, 579 eyes, ectopic. 621, 621-22

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