Biological Roles Of Sitespecific Recombination 302

K Integrase Promotes the Integration and Excision of a Viral Genome into the Host Cell Chromosome 303

Phage \ Excision Requires a New DNA-Bending Protein 304

xviii Detailed Contents

The Hin ReCombinase Inverts a Segment of DNA Al-

lowing Expression of Alternative Genes 305 Hin Recombination Requires a DNA Enhancer 306 KecombinasesConvert Multimeric Circular DNA

Molecules into Monomers 307 There Are Other Mechanisms to Direct Recombination to Specific Segments of DNA 3 i0 TRANSPOSITION 310

Some Genetic Elements Move to New Chromosomal

Locations by Transpos it ion 310 There Are Three Principal Classes of Transposable Elements 311 DNA Transposons Carry a Transpos ase Gene,

Flanked by Recombination Sires 312 Transposons Exist as Both Autonomous and Nonamonomous Elements H 3 Viral-I ike Retrotrarisposons and Retroviruses Carry Terminal Repeat Sequences and Two Genes Important for Recombination 313 Poly-A Retrutransposons Look Like Genes 314 DNA Transposition by a Cut' ând-Paste Mechanism i 14 The Intermediate in Cut-and-Paste Transposition

Is Finished by Gap Repair 316 There Are Multiple Mechanisms for Cleaving the Nontransferred Strand during DNA Transposition 316 DNA Transposition by a Replicative Mechanism 318 Viral-like Retrotransposons and Retroviruses Move Using an RNA Intermediate 320

DNA Transposases and Retroviral Integrases Are

Members of a Protein Superfamity 321 B ux I \'2 The Pathway of Retroviral cDNA Formation 322

Poly-A Retrorransposons Move by a "Reverse Splicing" Mechanism 324 EXAMPLES OF TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS AND THEIR REGULATION 327

lS4-Family Transposons Are Compact Elements with Multiple Mechanisms for Copy Number Control 327 Box i ) -3 Mfljje Ekments arid the Discovery of Transposons 328

Tn 10 Transposition Is Coupled to Cellular DNA Replication 329 Phage Mu Is an Extremely Robust Transposer! 331 Mu Uses Target Immunity to Avoid Transposing into Its Own DNA 331 Tel/Mariner Elements Are Extremely Successful

DNA Elements in Eukaryotes 334 Yeast Ty Elements Transpose into Safe Havens in the Genome 33.5 UN Bs Promote Their Own Transposition and Even Transpose Cellular RNAs 336 V(D)J RECOMBINATION 337 The Early Events in V(D)j Recombination Occur by

Mechanism Similar to Transposon Excision 339 Summary' 342 ßiblwgvaph}' 342

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