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NGOA Buyers Club

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Eula Bingham PhD John Zapp PhD deceased

There is little doubt that the customers of the early toxicologists were interested in assassination or suicide. Poisons offered a safer means for the assassin of disposing of an enemy than the more visible alternatives that posed the risk of premature discovery and possibly effective retaliation. As a means of suicide, poison often seemed more acceptable than other available means of self-destruction. Although poisons have continued to be used for both homicide and suicide, their popularity for these purposes has decreased as the popularity of firearms has increased. The use of poisons as adjuncts to other weapons such as the spear or arrow ceased in Western Europe long before the discovery of firearms. It has persisted to this day in primitive civilizations such as those of the African pygmies and certain tribes of South American Indians. The use of poison on a large scale as a primary weapon of war occurred during World War I, when both sides employed poison gases. In the interval...

Vectorborne Virus Diseases Yellow fever

Both these vaccine strains have lost the ability to cause viscerotropic disease and do not replicate in the mosquito. The 17D strain, derived by Theiler in 1937 (Theiler & Smith, 1937), is now grown in embryonated chicken eggs, and some 20-25 million doses of vaccine for human use are produced annually in 11 different countries, much of it in Brazil and Senegal. This vaccine is one of the safest ever developed, and a single dose probably provides protective immunity for life (Monath, 2001), although revaccination after 10 years is required under International Health Regulations for a valid travel certificate.

Bone Trephine Needles

Some bone needles have a special cutting tip designed to penetrate hard cortical or sclerotic bone (Table 3). Manual cutting needles and semiautomatic or automatic biopsy guns with either a side notch or an end notch are used to sample osteolytic or soft-tissue lesions (Table 4). These needles may be used alone or introduced through an introducer for coaxial use (for example Tru-Guide Bard, 7-18cm, 12-20 G).

Cited Publications

Barrett, Mechanisms of multistep carcinogenesis and carcinogen risk assessment. Environ. Health Perspect 100, 9-20 (1993). 25 J. C. Barrett et al., 12th meeting of the scientific group on methodologies for the safety evaluation of chemicals Susceptibility to environmental hazards. Environ. Health Perspect 105, (Suppl. 4), 699-737 (1997).

Esophageal Motility Disorders

Esophageal motility disorders may present with a variety of symptoms including dysphagia, noncardiac chest pain, or heartburn. Dysphagia is the most serious of these symptoms and, under such circumstances, the physician's first priority is to evaluate for related diseases such as esophageal tumor or stricture, which might require urgent intervention. A barium esophagram will adequately evaluate for either tumor or stricture. Endoscopy has become more the first line intervention because it offers the added benefit of evaluating for erosive esophagitis or the precan-cerous condition, Barrett's esophagus. Additionally, endoscopy offers therapeutic dilatation for strictures. For patients with just pain or heartburn, an equally acceptable first diagnostic intervention is a therapeutic trial of a highdose proton pump inhibitor such as omeprazole, 20mg twice a day. For patients who fail to respond to this thera peutic trial, an endoscopy is indicated. Additionally, the American College of...

Wondiwoi Mountains Wandammen Peninsula

When the mail ship reached Manokwari, Mayr received bad news The two boxes from Java with the needed supplies including ammunition for their bird guns had not arrived. Transportation was always a problem. Going from one place to another, dividing the baggage into smaller shipments in order to make use of available boats, etc., all that caused many difficulties. After three days of preparations in Manokwari the expedition left again for Momi and Wasior (Wandammen Peninsula) on the evening of 28 June. The objective was to collect birds on the higher slopes and the top of the Wondiwoi Mountains which form the backbone of the peninsula. Paddling all night they had reached the base of the Arfak Mountains next morning and then moved slowly southward against a strong southeasterly wind towards Momi where they arrived in the evening of 30 June. By that time the mail canoe with the supplies and equipment was supposed to be there, but when they started again on the government ship Griffioen on...

Other Non DsrAB Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductases

Besides DsrAB, two further siroheme SRs, AsrABC and Fsr, are presumably involved in dissimilatory processes. AsrABC is best studied in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and is encoded by a functional operon consisting of three genes asrA, asrB, and asrC (Clark and Barrett 1987 Huang and Barrett 1990, 1991). The deduced amino acid sequences of asrA and asrC contain conserved cysteine residues that are characteristic for Fe4S4 -ferredoxin binding domains (Huang and Barrett 1991). An additional siroheme- Fe4S4 -binding motif is only present in the y-subunit AsrC, which is homologous to DsrA and DsrB (Dhillon et al. 2005). In S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, asr genes are part of a larger set of genes, which act in concert to facilitate a very specific metabolism, i.e., B12-dependent anaerobic growth by oxidizing ethanolamine or 1,2-propanediol with tetrathionate as an electron acceptor (Price-Carter et al. 2001). Interestingly, this assemblage of many genes, including genes for...

A horse in Berlin at the beginning of the twentieth century claimed to have mastered human language and arithmetic

Surely Clever Hans was not the first animal to which human-like mental capabilities have been attributed. Neither was he the first horse to gain eternal fame. Nineteen centuries earlier, the Roman Emperor Caligula invited his beloved Incitatus to banquets and may had even announced his intention to appoint the horse to a Consul, probably in a lurch of doubtful Imperial humour (Barrett 1990). Throughout history individuals of many other species have been regarded as possessing some degree or another of human reason,

Preoperative Evaluation Choice of Imaging Modality for Guidance

Some limitations are intrinsic to the projectional nature of fluoroscopy and its lack of low-contrast resolution. Hence, many lesions are inadequately visualized on conventional radiographs, making fluoroscopy inadequate as a guiding modality. Similarly, lesions close to a neurovascular bundle may pose an increased technical risk. Fluoroscopy also fails to provide accurate measurements of the distance between the tip of the needle and the lesion, and stroke margins cannot be calculated when using spring-loaded guns. Therefore, fluoroscopic guidance is most suitable for use with fine-needle aspiration and coring needles. CT offers improved low-contrast resolution, allowing increased lesion detectability. Likewise, vital structures adjacent to the lesion can be avoided. Therefore, CT scan is an excellent modality in the cervical spine because of its intrinsic anatomical difficulty. In the thoracic spine, CT scan will help minimize the chances of creating a pneumothorax. Small osseous...

Saruwaget Mountains Fig 210

At first, about ten birds a day were collected which increased with growing experience of the two Malayan skinners. Mayr's plan was to search the surroundings of three stations at different elevations (1) Sattelberg (700-1,000 m), (2) Junzaing (1,100-1,400 m), and (3) Ogeramnang (1,600-2,000 m). Christmas and New Year were spent at Sattelberg. On 7 January 1929 the expedition left for Nanduo, stayed there overnight, and arrived at Junzaing on the 8th. Interesting birds obtained at this locality included, e.g., Pseudopitta (Amalocichla) incerta, Sericornis ar-fakianus, and Casuarius bennetti. From 18-27 January Mayr visited Sattelberg and Finschhafen to send off part of his collections but was rather desperate because the ammunition which he badly needed had not arrived. Now he had to continue reloading his brass cartridges for the bird guns every evening.

Acondition considered a priori to provide reliable evidence for something else

Meaning 'standard' in Greek, 'criterion' was advanced already by Plato, in a very capitalistic connotation 'Your success, I admit, is fine evidence of the wisdom of the present generation as compared with their predecessors, and it is a popular sentiment that the wise man must above all be wise for himself of such wisdom the criterion is in the end the ability to make the most mone (Hipp. Maj. 283b). Although to the naive mind the mere notion of'criterion' may look straightforward, to philosophers it poses a real problem. Consider the following statements in order to reach the conclusion that one knows a thing, one must posses criteria for the instantiation of that thing but in order to know the criteria, one must already know what the thing is. This Catch-22 situation is termed 'the problem of the criterion'. It has haunted philosophers since ancient times, and even brought the Greek sceptics to conclude that we know nothing for real because the aforementioned statements are both...

Prevention of social phobia

Since social phobia has an early age of onset, the treatment of children and adolescents should help to prevent social phobia from becoming a chronic condition. In a more purely prevention-oriented mould, the Queensland Early Intervention and Prevention of Anxiety Project, administered by Dadds, Barrett, and colleagues is a model for the future. These investigators implemented a 10-week school-based child- and parent-focused psychosocial intervention for child anxiety and compared it to a monitoring-only intervention.(95) A 2-year follow-up documents that the programme was successful in reducing the rate of existing anxiety disorder and preventing the onset of new disorder compared with the monitoring-only programme.(96)

Richard Lemen PhD Eula Bingham PhD

The first study of silicosis, in the time of the industrial revolution, was that of Johnstone in 1796 who noted the high mortality of needlepointers at Redditch, England (5). Knight first wrote of silica-induced disease in Sheffield during the early 1800s and later Thackrah, acknowledging Knight's work, described the dangers of sandstone dust in mining compared to the harmlessness of limestone dust and noted that bricklayers and limestone workers were long-lived whereas the sandstone masons usually died at an early age (6). Flint knappers, the makers of flints for flintlock guns, had high rates of silica-induced disease. Studies of the English and French knappers found that more than 75 died of phthisis compared to less than 10 in the general rural populations (7). Phthisis is an obsolete term for tuberculosis of the lungs derived from Greek meaning a wasting away or consumption (8). South African women who used sandstone grindstones for maize and corn developed diseases similar to...

The Horticultural Classification Of Narcissus Cultivars Historical developments

Figure 3.2 Examples of Narcissus cultivars of the main cultivar groups, with their classification (1) Small-cup 'Barrett Browning', 3 WWY-O (2) Large-cup 'Hollywood', 2 Y-O (3) Trumpet 'Dutch Master', 1 Y-Y (4) Double 'Papua', 4 Y-Y (5) Tazetta 'Grand Soleil d'Or', 8 Y-O (6) Split-corona 'Canasta', 11a W-Y. Photos Horticulture Research International. (See Colour plate 2) Figure 3.2 Examples of Narcissus cultivars of the main cultivar groups, with their classification (1) Small-cup 'Barrett Browning', 3 WWY-O (2) Large-cup 'Hollywood', 2 Y-O (3) Trumpet 'Dutch Master', 1 Y-Y (4) Double 'Papua', 4 Y-Y (5) Tazetta 'Grand Soleil d'Or', 8 Y-O (6) Split-corona 'Canasta', 11a W-Y. Photos Horticulture Research International. (See Colour plate 2)

Integrated Disease Control

Sometimes it is more effective to use intimate mixtures of host varieties with different resistance genes (Jensen, 1952 Wolfe and Barrett, 1980 Wolfe, 1985). Particularly if diversity between mixtures is maintained in space and in time, disease control is more consistent and durable than if the components are used in monoculture. By changing the composition of mixtures as new varieties become available, both the yield potential and the diversity are maximized, which suits both the farmer and the plant pathologist.

The Biological Species Concept and Species Taxa

Out every morning with their guns, and for every specimen that they brought back I asked, 'What do you call this one ' I recorded the scientific name in one column and the native name in another. Finally, when I had everything in the area, and when I compared the list of scientific names and the list of native names, there were 137 native names for 138 species. There were just two little greenish bush warblers for which they had only a single name. At the time, I took this for granted because as a naturalist I always believed in species, but whenever I read statements by armchair biologists who deny the existence of species, I always marvel at the remarkable coincidence that the scientist and the native in New Guinea should by pure accident have an imagination that is so closely similar that they assign the mountain birds of New Guinea to the same number of species (Mayr 1956g 5 see also here p. 58, Mayr 1943e, 1949m, 1963b 17, and Diamond 1966).

Admissibility Standards for Scientific Evidence

In the United States and abroad, much attention has been focused on scientific solutions to the new forensic problems posed by the prospect of biological weapons attacks. The threat of war and of terrorist activity at home and abroad has created a new consciousness of our vulnerability and sparked discussion of how best to respond. Deliberate release of a biological agent directed against the U.S. military or civilian population or such critical infrastructures as animal and plant agriculture and the food supply system would be either an act of war, if launched by a nation state, or a criminal act, if perpetrated by an individual or group of terrorists. The U.S. would respond by political, diplomatic, military, and legal means. For these to be most effective, it is essential to be able to investigate the event, correctly identify those responsible, and prove this in a court of law. Readers will be familiar with the concept of forensic examination of firearms and of bullets recovered...

The suicide process and the act of suicide

The choice of a specific method takes place at the very end of the suicide process and represents the last possibility to intervene. Availability is a major factor affecting this choice. Hanging is universally available and it is the most common suicide method globally. In many countries the ready access to firearms makes them potentially dangerous, especially among male adolescents and young adults. Restricting access to handguns might be expected to reduce the suicide rate of young people. Previously domestic gas was frequently used as a suicide method, and detoxfication resulted in a significant decrease in suicide rates. Restrictive availability measures may also be important in the clinical treatment of individual suicidal patients. Restriction in availability of dangerous means is a strategy based on the fact that suicidal crises are often brief, suicidal acts are often impulsive, and the long-term suicide rate of serious suicide attempts is remarkably low. (4,56,Z. and 8) The...

Hetero Duplex Analysis

Microsatellite Gel Electrophoresis

Detection of p53 sequence variants by sscp analysis. A 183-bp fragment of exon 8 of the p53 gene was amplified from DNA extracted from four different breast tumor cell lines and human placenta (wild-type control). 33P-labeled dATP was included in the PCR to label the products that were separated by electrophoresis through a 0.5X MDE gel at room temperature. Lane 1 Wild-type control lane 2, MDA-MB-231 cells lane 3, MDA-MB-468 cells lane 4, Bt-474 cells lane 5 SkBr3 cells. The cell lines in lanes 2-4 contain mutations in exon 8 resulting in aberrant migration of the PCR products. (Courtesy of Lori Terry and J. Carl Barrett, Ph.D., Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, NIEHS.) Fig. 8. Detection of p53 sequence variants by sscp analysis. A 183-bp fragment of exon 8 of the p53 gene was amplified from DNA extracted from four different breast tumor cell lines and human placenta (wild-type control). 33P-labeled dATP was included in the PCR to label the products that were separated...

Adenocarcinoma of the oesophago SJ Spechlerp Hainaut

Oesophagogastric Junction

Tumour registries typically distinguish only the adenocarcinoma in Barrett oesophagus and the carcinoma of the cardia. In the oesophagus, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is accepted as the cause of intestinal metaplasia (Barrett oesophagus) chronic reflux oesophagitis is a strong risk factor for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus 1001 . The cancer risk for patients with intestinal metaplasia in the oesophagus appears to be substantially higher than for patients with intestinal metaplasia in the stomach 1797 In contrast to the stomach, infection with H. pyloridoes not appear to play a direct role in the pathogenesis of oesophageal inflammation and metapla- sia 1381, 1076, 1617, 1889, 501, 1087, 6, 1579 . Indeed, recent reports suggest that gastric infection with H. pylori may actually protect the oesophagus from cancer by preventing the development of reflux oesophagitis and Barrett oesophagus 2090, 998, 2094, 309, 2012, 615, 350, 504, 1948, 2213, 837, 1957 ....

Degradation of Specific Proteins

Measurements For Foot Roof Trusses

A more specific approach to 3-methylhistidine measurement of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein breakdown measures release of 3-methylhistidine from skeletal muscle via A-V blood measurements across a muscle bed, such as leg or arm (121). This measurement of protein breakdown from the 3-methylhistidine A-V difference can be combined with the A-V difference measurement of an essential amino acid that is not metabolized in muscle, such as tyrosine. In contrast to 3-methylhistidine, tyrosine released by protein breakdown is reused for protein synthesis. The A-V difference of tyrosine across an arm or leg defines net protein balance (i.e., the difference between protein breakdown and synthesis). Protein synthesis is, therefore, the difference of the 3-methylhistidine and tyrosine A-V difference measurements (56, 122). The results by this technique should be similar to those obtained by the tracer method of Barrett et al. ( 59).

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage above the lower ileum

Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

Reflux esophagitis is another common cause of esophageal bleeding. This diagnosis is suspected when guaiac-positive stools or small amounts of melena are discovered in a patient experiencing frequent bouts of heartburn, particularly when in a recumbent position. The disorder results from repeated reflux and retention of acid-peptic gastric contents in the esophagus as a result of both reduced resting pressure at the level of the inferior esophageal sphincter and delayed esophageal emptying. While the inflammatory process is usually mild and bleeding is slight, actual mucosal dysplasia (Barrett epithelium) leading to ulcers and strictures may occur in severe chronic cases. In immunocompromised patients in particular, several types of mycoses (especially candidiasis) or viral infections may cause extensive esophagitis and dysphagia, usually with minor bleeding. These disorders are generally responsive to specific chemotherapeutic drugs. Cancer of the esophagus is unlikely to cause major...

Risk and the Status of Markets for Wildlife Products

It is important to note that the policy and legislative changes discussed above were necessary but not sufficient for landholders to start investing and managing wildlife. For wildlife to become a viable land use it was essential that there were markets for the wildlife goods and services produced by private landholders. Thus, although less directly dependent on primary rangeland production than livestock, it has been that argued that wildlife producers are highly exposed to another exogenous variable, namely the vagaries of the market for wildlife products (Barrett and Arcese, 1995).9 Wildlife-based tourism, which encompasses both international trophy hunting and photographic tourism, is a luxury product with a high-income elasticity. This means

Types Of Second Malignancy

Large rhabdomyosarcoma originating from the inferior orbital rim and mandible, following EBRT for bilateral Rb. (Courtesy of Dr. Barrett Haik, Memphis, Tennessee.) FIGURE 5.4. Large rhabdomyosarcoma originating from the inferior orbital rim and mandible, following EBRT for bilateral Rb. (Courtesy of Dr. Barrett Haik, Memphis, Tennessee.)

Evoked Potentials And Intelligence

Of visual ERP components, Barry and Ertl (1966) reported correlations of -.88 and - .76 between component latency and IQ in college students. Chalke and Ertl (1965) confirmed that shorter latencies were associated with higher intelligence in a more representative sample of IQ scores. Ertl (1966) reported correlations of -.70 between latency of the third negative peak and IQ in 100 subjects with IQs ranging from 77 to 136. A subsequent replication (Ertl, 1969) obtained a correlation of -.51 between the latency of the third negative peak and IQ in 300 children. In the largest study to date, Ertl and Schafer (1969) tested 573 primary school children (317 males, 256 females Grades 2 through 8) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), the Primary Mental Abilities test (PMA) and the OTIS test of mental abilities, as well as a visual ERP task in which the subject was required to attend but not to respond to brief photic stimuli. Highest correlations were obtained with the...

Nutritional Ergogenic Agents

Other sources of information include the Ergogenics Pamphlet (http mim ergopam.pdf) the Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms web site at http the Federal Drug Agency at http (select the Food icon) and the Federal Trade Commission at http (search consumer publications). Be aware of substances that are banned by the military and various athletic associations.

Distribution of Ion Channels in Myelinated Axons

Experiments involving isolated nodal voltage-clamping, isolated internodal voltage-clamping (following the acute removal of myelin by detergents such as lysolethicin), patch-clamping demyelinated axons, recordings of electro-tonus from normal axons and immunocytochemistry of peripheral and central axons have elucidated and confirmed the normal distribution of ion channel types in myelinated nerve (Chiu et al., 1979 Baker et al., 1987 Roper and Schwarz, 1989 Reid et al., 1999 Rasband and Shrager, 2000). The patterns in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and CNS appear similar. Normally, transiently opening Na+ channels are confined to the nodes of Ranvier, and are present at densities of around 2,000 per im2 (estimated from nonstationary noise analysis, gating current measurements, and by counting freeze-fracture particles, reviewed by Ritchie, 1995). A far lower density of several tens of channels per m2 is thought to be present in the internode (Chiu and Schwarz, 1987), insufficient...

Levine Critchley Syndrome

While working at the Department of Neurology of David Barrett Clark in Lexington, Kentucky, it was his task to provide neurologic care in the small towns of the hinterland I went about weekly to a regional clinic. We would hire a State limousine, seating at least six people and holding an EEG set, and travel down a state highway at about 90 mph (looking out for helicopters) to a National Park, where we stay the night before an early start treating epilepsy, genetic diseases and other neurological disorders referred to us. 19 In these isolated regions he discovered his prize patient, for whom he uses the alias Terry. The poor were white, the Scots-Irish, the inbred white people living along the 'creeks' or narrow river valleys, the Appalachian poor. Forced to work on the plantations of Virginia to pay their passage to America, many chose to escape and live rough as frontiersmen. They found a creek with a bit of land, safe from other feuding wild men . married and produced offspring....

Using Arteriovenous Differences to Define Organ Balances

The limited data set of simple balance values across an organ bed is greatly enhanced when a tracer is administered and its balance is also measured across an organ bed. This approach allows a complete solution of the various pathways operating in the tissue for each amino acid tracer used. In some cases the measurement of tracer can become very complicated, requiring measurement of multiple metabolites to provide a true metabolite balance across the organ bed ( 58). Another approach using a tracer of a nonmetabolized essential amino acid has been described by Barrett et al. ( 59). This method requires a limited set of measurements with simplified equations to define specifically rates of protein synthesis and breakdown in muscle tissue. The conceptual simplicity of this approach with a limited set of measurements required makes it extremely useful for defining muscle-specific changes in response to a variety of perturbations (e.g., local infusion of insulin into the same muscle bed...

Population strategies

The widespread availability of guns in certain countries, particularly the United States, has been proposed as an important reason for their relatively high suicide rates. Guns are used in more than half of all suicides in the United States and their use for suicide correlates with the holding of gun licences in households. (29) Some controversy surrounds the question of whether restricting availability of guns leads to a reduction in suicide rates, but the weight of evidence seems to indicate that it does.( 0)

List of Contributors

Barrett, Department of Physiology and Biophysics and the Neuroscience Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA J.N. Barrett, Department of Physiology and Biophysics and the Neuroscience Program, University of Miami School of Medicine, Room 5025 Rosenstiel Medical Science Building (RMSB) 1600 N.W. 10th Avenue, Miami, FL 33101, USA C.M. Blatteis, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, The University of Tennessee Health Science

The Threat

In addition to bioterrorism, pathogens and or toxins may be used in biocrimes. These acts may be considered the same as traditional crimes which usually are directed towards harming individuals except that the weapon is biological in nature, instead of guns, knives, and traditional chemical poisons such as cyanide. However, the use of a bioweapon in a criminal case should be taken as seriously as that of a bioterrorist attack.

Forensic Science

The ultimate question usually is who committed the crime (i.e., attribution), and crime scene evidence can play a role in answering that question. Evidence can be any material, physical, or electronic finding that can associate or exclude individuals, victim and or suspect, with a crime. It typically comprises materials specific to the crime and to control samples for background information. Types of evidence may be fingerprints, blood, semen, saliva, hair, fibers, documents, photos, computer files, videos, firearms, glass, metals, plastics, paint, powders, explosives, tool marks, and soil.

Teichoic Acids

Of repeating units of glycerol or ribitol and are connected by phosphate esters (Shockman and Barrett 1983 de Leeuw and Largeau 1993). Teichoic acids are covalently attached to the murein in the cell wall via the phosphodiester linkage. The teichoic acids can be partly replaced by te-ichuronic acids, polymers consisting mainly of d-glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine.

Tablet Coating

Spray guns The number and types of guns should be determined in order to efficiently coat the tablets. The spray nozzles should be sized properly to ensure even distribution over the tablet bed and to prevent clogging of the nozzles. The location and angle of the spray gun(s) should be positioned to get adequate coverage. Having the guns positioned too close together can lead to a portion of the tablets to be overwet.


By the time we got home, Joe was firmly convinced that he had seen such things and within the third time of telling the tale, he had also seen a bomb and a whole set of guns and by the time he was due to go to school the next day, he couldn't wait to tell his teacher that he had witnessed a murder Despite explaining what Joe had seen and despite the fact that his friends were fully satisfied that Joe had got it wrong, Joe firmly believed his own story. Fortunately Joe has always had teachers who are aware of Joe's 'imagination' though I dread to think what he does tell them at school

Clinical findings

Sleepwalking is characterized by complex, automatic behaviours, such as aimlessly wandering about, nonsensically carrying objects from one place to another, rearranging furniture, inappropriately eating, urinating in cupboards, going outdoors, and on rare occasion driving a car. (23,24) The eyes are usually wide open and have a glassy stare, and there may be some mumbling. However, communication with a sleepwalker is usually poor or impossible. Frenzied or aggressive behaviour, the wielding of weapons (knives, guns), or the calm suspension of judgement (e.g. leaving via a bedroom window, wandering far outdoors) can result in inadvertent injury or death to self or others. Homicidal sleepwalking can occur. (23>

Highrisk strategies

Certain occupational groups are known to be at relatively high risk of suicide. In the United Kingdom these include farmers, veterinary surgeons, dental practitioners, medical practitioners, pharmacists, and female nurses. .M4 It is interesting to note that all these groups have relatively easy access to dangerous methods for suicide. Prevention of suicide in such occupational groups is an important consideration, although each group makes a relatively small contribution to the overall national suicide rate and prevention through detection of those most at risk encounters the usual difficulties of prevention of relatively rare behaviour using rather crude risk factors. It is probably more important to have general strategies for improving care in individual groups. In doctors, for example, there are some particular difficulties about confidentiality and therefore providing easy means of doctors getting confidential help is important. In farmers, improving the knowledge and attitudes...

The origins of DENV

Luckily, viral gene sequence data offer an alternative means to infer the evolutionary history of DENV. Estimates for the age of DENV based on viral molecular clocks are relatively consistent (Twiddy et al 2003, Weaver & Barrett 2004, Zanotto et al 1996). For example, estimates for the date of the origin of DENV itself places this event within the last few thousand years, satisfactory adjacent to the earliest reports of dengue-like illness. Similarly, most molecular clock estimates for age of the genetic diversity within each serotype are similar, 100-300 years ago (Fig. 1). These dates most likely correspond to either the time of cross-species transmission from non-human primates to humans, or to the acquisition of Aedes aegypti as the principle vector for DENV transmission in humans (Moncayo et al 2004). However, one puzzle remains why the genetic diversity within the four serotypes appears at approximately the same time The most likely explanation is that the spill-over of DENV...

Rainbow Serpent

Sources John Mathew, Two Representative Tribes of Queensland (London T. Fisher Unwin, 1910), p. 171 Gilbert Whitley, Mystery Animals of Australia, Australian Museum Magazine 7 (1940) 132-139 Charles Barrett, The Bunyip and Other Mythical Monsters and Legends (Melbourne, Australia Reed and Harris, 1946), pp. 35-45 Charles P. Mountford, Brown Men and Red Sand Wanderings in Wild Australia (Melbourne, Australia Robertson and Mullens, 1948), p. 135 James Vance Marshall, A Walk to the Hills of the Dreamtime (London Hodder and Stoughton, 1970), p. 156 Rod Ansell and Rachel Percy, To Fight the Wild (Perth, W. Australia Fremantle Arts Centre, 1980), p. 135 W. S. Ramson, ed., The Australian

Completed suicide

Methods of suicide chosen by older people depend to a great extent on availability. In the United States firearms are the means chosen by 70 per cent of older men.(25> Shooting is also commonly chosen in Australia and Finland. In the United Kingdom, which has more stringent firearms control, men more commonly choose hanging, suffocation, or jumping from tall objects, whereas women tend to go for a drug overdose, frequently of analgesics. (2 2 and 28) In Japan hanging is the most common method.(29) In Hong Kong it is jumping from one of the many very high buildings, (30> whereas in Sri Lanka organophosphate poisoning is frequent. (31

Case Study

Gerald is a forty-two-year-old man with a ten-year history of multiple sclerosis. He is married, has three children ages 14, 12, and 8. He served in the Navy prior to his marriage and then became a security guard at a local company. He has brainstem symptoms (tremor, ataxia, nystagmus) and is no longer able to work. He has a gun collection in his home. He has been hospitalized three times during the past five years for paranoid behaviors. Following his most recent hospitalization, he promised that he would remove the guns from his home. He has been tested for cognitive impairment (memory, judgment, and learning have been affected) and has been counseled by a neuropsy-chologist until his insurance ceased covering for care. He has become increasingly abusive to his wife and family as his condition has progressed. He threatens his wife and children with both physical abuse and with his guns. He is intermittently depressed and exhibits paranoid behaviors (his wife is having an affair, his...

Table 1424

Wicke, C., Wagner, S., Trabold, O. et al., Age dependency of insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins and acid labile subunit in plasma and wounds of surgical patients, Wound Repair Regen., 10, 360-365, 2002. Liu, Z. and Barrett, E., Human protein metabolism its measurement and regulation, Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab, 283, 1105-1112, 2002.

Emergency treatment

Outpatient treatment should be used when the child or adolescent is unlikely to act on suicidal impulses, when there is sufficient support at home, and when there is someone who can take action if the adolescent's behaviour or mood deteriorates. Children and adolescents should never be discharged from an emergency or care service without the child's or adolescent's caretaker having been interviewed (see Boxl) to ensure that firearms and or lethal medications will be made inaccessible to the child. Unless this advice is given, parents will rarely, on their own initiative, take the necessary precautions. Before discharge, the clinician must have a good understanding of the amount of support that will be available for the child or adolescent if he or she is discharged home.

Hantu Sakai

Moves easily through the trees. Hops on the ground on its heels. Croaks like a bird. Keen sense of smell. Strong animal odor. Uses forearm to cut foliage. Timid. Recognizes guns and is afraid of them. Said to kill and eat humans, especially thin ones. Wears a bark loincloth.