Brain Imaging And Verbal Fluency

As previously mentioned, verbal fluency (the generation of verbal responses in relation to a stimulus word or letter) is commonly used as a cognitive measure of creativity. A number of studies have used modern brain imaging technology to localise the areas of the brain that are most involved during the execution of verbal fluency (VF) tasks. Parks et al. (1988) used PET to measure cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) during the execution of a VF task. The VF task required participants...

Summary And Conclusions

Initial PET studies of intelligence, however, have produced somewhat counterintuitive evidence concerning localisation and direction of relationships. With regard to localisation, one would expect that the likely brain sites for problem solving (based on existing neuropsychological data) would also be the likely sites for intelligence-metabolism correlations. For example, research indicates that certain frontal and prefrontal brain areas are involved in directing attention, planning, holding...

Evoked Potentials And Intelligence

The first systematic attempt to relate ERP parameters to IQ was by Ertl and his co-investigators (i.e. Barry & Ertl, 1966 Chalke& Ertl, 1965 Ertl, 1971 1973 Ertl & Schafer, 1969). Employing crude estimation techniques in the identification of visual ERP components, Barry and Ertl (1966) reported correlations of -.88 and - .76 between component latency and IQ in college students. Chalke and Ertl (1965) confirmed that shorter latencies were associated with higher intelligence in a more...

Psychophysiology

The original concept of sensation seeking was based on the construct of individual differences in optimal levels of arousal, suggesting that high sensation seekers might be tonically underaroused and seek novel or intense stimulation in order to increase arousal. Measures of tonic arousal, using EEG or skin conductance (SC), did not reveal arousal differences between high and low sensation seekers (Zuckerman, 1990). However, 5 out of 8 studies found that high sensation seekers gave a stronger...

Eeg Frequencies And Intelligence

Alpha frequency (AF) was one of the first measures of the EEG that has been investigated in the search for the neurobiological basis of intelligence. Many of the early studies that visually analysed the EEG traces, calculated the AF by counting the number of alpha waves in small samples of the EEG trace and calculating the mean AF. Once again, the results of these early studies were mixed. Knott, Friedman, & Bardsley (1942) reported finding a positive relationship (r +0.5) between...

Neurotransmitters and their Enzymes

Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme found in two forms, A and B. MAO-B is obtained from blood platelets in living organisms and is primarily involved in the metabolism of dopamine, regulating its level in the dopamine neuron Table 5. Psychopathology and Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Zuckerman (1994) Shekim et al. (1986) Lidberg et al. (1985) Klinteberg (1996) Reist et al. (1990) Major & Murphy (1988) Shukitt (1994), Sher (1993) von Knorring et al. (1987)...

Eeg Coherence And Intelligence

The previously discussed studies have mainly focussed on the EEG parameters that index local cortical activation. Although, an increasing body of evidence from behavioural and cognitive neuroscience suggests that complex goal-directed behaviour, including cognitive test performance, is underlied by a dynamic integration of anatomically distributed, but functionally related neuronal groups. This spatiotemporal 'binding' of activities in specialized cortical areas is achieved through coherent...

Genetics Of Sensation Seeking

Biometric studies of the genetics of personality and intelligence have used several methods including studies comparing identical and fraternal twins, adoption studies comparing children with biological and adoptive parents and siblings, and family studies of first degree relatives from intact families. The methodology for these studies is aptly described in the most recent edition of Behavioral Genetics (Plomin, DeFries, McClearn, & Rutter, 1997). The first genetic study of sensation...