Essential Oils Ebook

Learn How To Use Essential Oils

These aromatherapy eBooks are good for beginners and folks who just wanna make stuff. They cover some basic essential oil education, but they focus most on recipes and blending. They're written to help you play and experiment and learn how to use essential oils in your every day life. Learn how to make more than 40 natural home remedies & recipes using Lavender, Lemon, Oregano, Peppermint & Tea Tree. Over 70 Instant Tips to get started right away. Read more here...

Learn How To Use Essential Oils Summary


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All the modules inside this ebook are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Essential oils of Turkish Origanum taxa

Wildcrafted, but also cultivated in areas exceeding 6000 ha in Denizli, Izmir and Isparta provinces in Western Turkey. During our research into the essential oils of O. onites, carvacrol (67 82 per cent) was found as main constituent in 13 samples. However, four samples from Antalya and Mugla provinces in Southern Turkey yielded oils rich in linalool (80 92 per cent). Mixed types were also encountered in three samples containing carvacrol (36 66 per cent) and linalool (15 52 per cent) as main constituents. In one sample, carvacrol (57 per cent) and thymol (12 per cent) were found as main constituents (Table 4.4) (Ogutveren etal., 1992 Baser etal., 1993 Tumen etal., 1995 Kirimer etal., 1995 Boydag etal, 2000) Composition of the oil of O. onites of Turkish origin has also been previously reported (Gurgen, 1948 Tanker, 1965 Mar-quard etal, 1966 Ceylan, 1976 Buil etal, 1977 Taysi etal, 1978 Vomel and Ceylan, 1979 Scheffer etal, 1986 Akgul and Bayrak, 1987).


Genuine essential oils contain diverse complex substances comprising active ingredients, secondary components, and trace compounds. The The pharmaceutical effects of essential oils are due to their inherent chemical constituents and to the fact that these constituents work synergisti-cally. Their specific effects are determined by their structures, whether they have lipophilic or hydrophilic properties, and if they attract or repel electrons. They are so complex on the molecular level that one oil can have many different uses. The physical nature of oils, a low molecular weight, and an affinity for lipids or fats allow them to penetrate body tissues with great ease. When an oil is inhaled, it is absorbed in the nasal cavity and picked up by smell receptors that pass information to the limbic system of the brain where emotions and memory are controlled and High potency oils are expensive however, they tend to be cost-effective because results can be obtained with smaller doses. The...

Essential Oils

A mixture of essential oils consisting of thymol 0.06 , eucalyptol 0.09 , methyl salicylate 0.06 , and menthol 0.04 in an alcohol-based vehicle (26.9 ) provides the plaque-inhibiting properties of rinsing agents such as Listerine. Essential oils may reduce plaque levels by inhibiting bacterial enzymes and by reducing pathogenicity of plaque via reduction of the amount of endotoxin the alcohol is probably responsible for denaturing bacterial cell walls. The substantivity of Listerine appears to be quite low, and therefore, it must be used at least twice a day to be effective. A variety of clinical studies have demonstrated that Listerine is capable of reducing plaque and gingivitis over extended periods however, the degree of reduction is variable. Listerine will reduce plaque and gingivitis anywhere from 14.9 to 20.8 and 6.5 to 27.7 , respectively (Table 42.1). Adverse reactions include a bitter taste and burning sensation in the oral cavity. Regular use of high-alcohol rinses can...

Glycosidically Bound Volatile Compounds

Some volatile compounds which are present in plants in free form are also present as glycosidically bound components. Volatile compounds can be released from the nonvolatile relatives by enzymatic or chemical reactions during plant maturation, industrial pretreatment or processing, including fermentation by endogenous -glycosidase. The increase of essential oil yield in some herbs during storage may be explained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of glycosides present in these plants (Crouzet and Chassagne, 1999). The sugar moiety of these glycosides can be monosaccharidic or disaccharidic. Table 3.5 shows the volatile compounds that have been found up to now in glycoside form in Origanum taxa (Stahl-Biskup etal, 1993 Mastelic etal, 2000) analyzed in Germany and Croatia. There is no quantitative relation between the volatiles present in the essential oils and those released from the glycoside fraction, even though there are several in common. The most predominant volatile aglycone was...

Oregano Has Effective Antioxidative Properties

Already in the 1950s Chipault et al. (1952) measured antioxidative activities of different spices and found that oregano was among those spices, which have an ability to retard oxidation of lard. Later on Chipault et al. (1955) found that oregano was effective also in oil-in-water emulsion and when it was added as ground into different types of foods, its antioxidant capacity was best in mayonnaise and in french dressing (Chipault et al., 1956). Nakatani and Kikuzaki (1987) and Kikuzaki and Nakatani (1989) reported that antioxidative activity of water soluble fraction of methanol extraction of oregano leaves was due to two new compounds and it was comparable to BHA (butylated hydroxy anisol). Tsimidou and Boskou (1994) have written a whole chapter by name Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from the Plants of the Lamiaceae Family in the book Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi edited by Charalambous (1994). Carvacrol is one of the compounds responsible for antioxidant capacity of...

Biological activities of Turkish Oregano

Pharmacological activities of the essential oils of O.onites and O.minutiflorum were tested. Both the oils reduced the tonus of rat stomach fundus. They also reduced the carbachol-induced contractions on isolated rat ileum and inhibited the spontaneous activity of sheep ureter. They exhibited analgesic activity in hot-plate test on mice as well. Acute toxicity of the oils were determined on albino mice. Acute toxicity tests resulted in sedation and anaestesia followed by respiratory failure and death. LD50 values for the oils were found as 1.6 mL kg for O. onites and as 2.4 mL kg for O. minutiflorum (Cingi etal, 1992). The essential oils of O. onites and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum were found to be effective against all the molds and bacteria tested except for P. aeruginosa. The other microorganisms tested were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, A. niger, Aspergillus candidus, P. chrysogenum, Fusarium sp. (Dortunc and Cevikbas, 1992).

Insectpollinating And Antiparasitic Activity

Origanum taxa, especially those that are rich in essential oils, have been extensively studied for their insect-pollinating (Ricciurdelli d'Albore, 1983 Beker et al, 1989) or nectar yielding (Kucherov and Siraeva, 1981 Jovancevic etal., 1984 Jablonski, 1986) effects. Although scientifically poorly understood, the traditional knowledge on attracting effects Origanum spp. for pollinating insects, especially honeybee (Apis mellifera), has been practically exploited since 1877, when the idea of culturing the bee forages with additional but non-marketable values was born (Ayers and Ayers, 1997). Interesting findings, that reveal the very complex mechanism underlying the communication between insects and attracting plants, were reported by Beker et al. (1989). They have observed that honeybees are capable of discriminating between different blends of odours and behave selectively to different parts (leaves, inflorescence) or chemotype (thymol, carvacrol) of O. syriacum due to perceiving...

Insecticidal Nematicidal And Molluscicidal Activity

Higher plants, especially medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP), are a potential source of new insecticides, and many research groups are trying to prove their activity against noxious pests. Some natural compounds, isolated from these MAP (such as rotenon, pyretrins, and azadirachtin) are already commercially available on the market. A range of active compounds, including terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, essential oils or their components (like carvacrol), that are present in O. vulgare in relative high amounts, were considered as a potential source of natural biocides (Duke, 1992). Investigations on the activity of aromatic plants against stored product- or plant-noxious pests gave diverse results when considering different insect species, their developmental stages (eggs and adults) or the way of application (fumigant, contact) (Regnault-Roger and Hamraoui, 1993a Shaaya etal., 1993 Regnault-Roger and Hamraoui, 1995 Kalinovic etal, 1997 Mateeva etal., 1997 Rakowski and Ignatowicz,...

Oregano Contains Antimicrobial Substances

In addition to antioxidative properties of various spice substances, food scientists are currently searching for new natural substances from spices and herbs, which would have uses as natural food preservatives. For example investigations on prolongation of storage life of vegetables and root vegetables like potato have involved herbs and spices and their essential oils. Prevention of deterioration due to microbial growth in warm countries for example in Mediterranean area, where spices and herbs belong to everyday cuisine would be easily applied in food science.


Flavonoids, although phenolic compounds are discussed separately. Compared with the essential oils, the flavonoids of Origanum have received significantly less attention. It is only in recent years, that antioxidant compounds have become highly appreciated, hence more light is expected to be thrown on flavonoids that are always present, together with other phenolic compounds, in herbal infusion and other plant preparations (Vekiari et al, 1993 Moller et al, 1999). For example, Kanazawa et al. (1995) reported that galangin and quercetin extracted from Origanum have shown specific antimuta-genic activity against dietary carcinogens.


It is clear that the chemistry of Lippia has been largely concentrated on essential oils, an outstanding feature of the genus being the remarkable qualitative differences observed in the composition reported for the same species from different geographic origins. However, it is worth to note that oils obtained from the same plant stock remain chemically constant for many years (Soler et al., 1986 Souto-Bachiller et al., 1996). For instance, sterile plantles obtained by in vitro germination of seeds from wild plants of Lippia dulcis have been cloned by single node culture after repeated subculture for more than 5 years, it was found that the variations in the essential oil composition and ( + )-hernandulcin content were negligible (Souto-Bachiller et al., 1996).


Besides toxicological data, referring to toxicities of single components of essential oils such as limonene (carcinogenic in male rats) from O. majorana (de Vincenzi and Mancini 1997) several clinical studies confirmed the allergenic potential of Origanum spp. On the basis of clinical history, and of in vitro and in vivo studies, O. vulgare showed cross-sensitivity with other plants of the Lamiaceae family. The potential allergic response, that could be evoked in sensitive patients after the ingestion of food seasoned with O. vulgare, comprises an increased serum level of specific IgE and induced systemic allergic reactions (Benito et al., 1996). Similarly, perioral dermatitis has been reported to be induced by O. majorana food flavouring (Farkas, 1981). O. vulgare has been shown also to induce allergic contact dermatitis, as clinically evaluated by patch test (Futrell and Rietschel, 1993).

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Abd-Elgawad, M.M. and Omer, E.A. (1995) Effect of essential oils of some medicinal plants on phytonematodes. Anzeiger f r Schadlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz 68(4), 82 84. Adam, K., Sivropoulou, A., Kokkini, S., Lanaras, T. and Arsenakis, M. (1998) Antifungal activities of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Mentha spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, and Salvia fruticosa essential oils against Human Pathogenic Fungi. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46(5), 1739-1745. Akg l, A. and Bayrak, A. (1987) Constituents of essential oils from Origanum species growing wild in Turkey. Planta medica 53(1), 114. Akgul, A. and Kivanij, M. (1989) Sensitivity of four foodborne moulds to essential oils from Turkish spices, herbs and citrus peel. J. Sci. Food Agric. 47, 129 132. Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Valentini, G. and Arnold, H.J. (1993) Comparative study of the essential oils from three species of Origanum growing wild in the eastern Mediterranean region. J. Essent. Oil Res. 5(1), 71 77. Aureli, P.,...


Unicellular Hairs Leaves

The glandular hairs seem to operate in different ways than the nonglandular ones. Their secretions (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolics, sucrose esters, etc.) have been observed to have a repellent character on harmful insects (Levin, 1973 Werker, 1993), to be toxic when eaten (Klingauf et al, 1983 Bestmann et al, 1987), to inhibit egg hatching (Sharaby, 1988 Konstantopoulou etal., 1992) and to function as sticky traps (Kowalski etal., 1988). Diterpenes and triterpenes have been further found to be deterrent, toxic and severe skin irritants to herbivorous mammals (Rosenthal and Berenbaum, 1991). Of significance are, in addition, the antimicrobial and allelopathic properties of the terpenoid components of the essential oils secreted by the glandular hairs (Vokou and Margaris, 1986 Sivropoulou et al., 1996). Recently, an important role has been attributed to the glandular hairs and their secretions (phenolic compounds of the essential oils), as concerns their implication in the...

Breeding Targets

3 for industrial purposes as source of antimicrobial essential oils and or antioxidant extracts. Regarding the use of oregano as crude drug or as source of essential oils and extracts, the following parameters are of particular interest Composition of essential oils (in oregano high carvacrol content, in marjoram high cis-sabinene hydrate content) Quantity of essential oils (in marjoram more than 2 per cent is desired)

Creating A New Vision

The poignant question asked by the American naturalist philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson still rings true today, What is a weed A plant whose virtues have yet to be discovered. One of our prime responsibilities as natural product scientists to the future generations is to demonstrate the value of biodiversity through new discoveries of plant-derived medicinal agents and raise awareness of the importance of plants in our everyday lives for health purposes. Such efforts will require the establishment of solid linkages which unite the interests of environmental preservation, medicinal plant research and drug discovery, and the development of the agro-industrial enterprise. As an example, countries should be examining their imports of finished pharmaceuticals and natural products (essential oils, flavor and fragrance materials) with a view to developing or expanding the local capacity to produce these materials. Is it possible that such programs could lead to a reduction in imports and...

G St Johns Wort Hypericum perforatum L

This is a perennial herb native to Europe, Western Asia, North Africa, Madeira, and Azores and introduced to North America and Australia. Aerial parts including fresh buds and flowers have been traditionally used for their sedative, anti-inflammatory, anxiolitic, and astringent qualities to treat burns, insomnia, shock, hysteria, gastritis, hemorrhoids, kidney disorders, etc. Chemical compounds identified include phloro-glucinols (hyperforin and adhyperforin), naphthodianthrones (hypericin, pseudohy-pericin, and isohypericin), flavonoids (kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin, quercetin, hyperoside, and quercetin), essential oils (a- and P-pinene, limonene, myrcene, and caryophyllene), as well as proanthocyanidins, phytosterols, coumarins, xanthones, carotenoids, and phenolic acids. The components of this herb inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Hyperforin has antibiotic properties inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus. The flavonoids act as free radical scavengers...

Active Packaging Antimicrobial Films 19321 Synthetic Polymer Films

The development of antimicrobial films has been significantly restricted by the legal status of antimicrobial compounds available for food contact use or as food preservatives or additives currently only a limited number of such approved compounds exist, and approval varies among countries. Silver-substituted zeolites, a broad-spectrum high-activity antimicrobial with low human toxicity, has been extensively used commercially in Japan as a thin laminant on packaging film surfaces its use on food contact surfaces in the European Union and the U.S., however, is unclear 23 . Some U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) generally regarded as safe (GRAS) materials that have been considered for use as antimicrobials in synthetic polymer films include organic acids (benzoic, lactic, propionic, malic, succinic, tartaric, sorbic), enzymes (lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme, chitinase, glucose oxidase, ethanol oxidase), isothiocyanates (allylisothiocyanate), bacteriocinsc (nisin, pediocin,...

Liaison with traditional healers

Traditional healers are common in most low-income countries and, despite the presence of practitioners of modern medicine, people routinely consult traditional healers in the first instance. Indeed this situation is aggravated in countries where the public know that even if they do consult primary care or specialist clinics, there is unlikely to be an available supply of medicine. In Western countries there has also been a resurgence of alternative healers such as homeopathy, aromatherapy, acupuncture, and shiatsu. More research needs to be done on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in people who consult traditional healers, but it is likely that the prevalence is at least as high as it is in people who consult primary care doctors. Collaboration and exchange of ideas is likely to be helpful. There has already been considerable cross-fertilization and many if not most traditional healers are familiar with concepts of psychosis, depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse, and have...

Some Other Plants

There are a number of plants which offer considerable potential for extraction and development of essential oils. These could enhance the profitability of the pimento leaf oil extractors in the island. With the seasonality of the pimento leaf oil-bearing tree, which lasts only 6-7 months of the year, the plants tend to be idle during the off-season period, and other essential oils would be a welcome source of additional revenue, if extracted.

A314 pH

Spices and herbs can have substantial antimicrobial activity and appropriate terms may need to be included in secondary models (Koutsoumanis et al., 1999 Skandamis and Nychas, 2000). The concentration of active antimicrobial components in spices, herbs, and essential oils can vary substantially as a function, e.g., of geographical region and season (Nychas and Tassou, 2000 Sofos et al., 1998). Therefore, the development of accurate secondary predictive models most likely will have to rely on the concentration of their active antimicrobial components. Recently, Lambert et al. (2001) showed the antimicrobial effect of the oregano essential oil quantitatively corresponded to the effect of its two active components, i.e., thymol and carvacrol. To quantitatively determine active components in spices, herbs, and essential oils appropriate extracts can be analyzed by GC MS techniques (Cosentino et al., 1999 Cowan, 1999).

Eye Problems

Wash made from an infusion of calendula, eye-bright, or chamomile, kept sterile, can reduce swelling and redness add goldenseal if there is an infection. Use echinacea, eyebright, sage, and goldenseal as tea. A warm aromatherapy compress with a few drops of lavender, chamomile, or rose oil can soothe the area and help heal the infection. Green myrtle oil is an anti-inflammatory and can be mixed with water and sprayed into the eye or onto a closed eye and then blink several times. Homeopathy remedies include Apis mellifica, Argentum nitricum, Euphrasia, Hepar sulphuris calcareum, Mercurius solubilis, Natrum muri-aticum, Pulsatilla, and sulfur. Take remedy according to symptoms. Chinese medicine includes violet, chyrsanthemum flowers, and bamboo leaves boil, strain, cool, and use as eyewash.


Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the major component in essential oils of cruciferous plants, such as black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra), brown mustard seeds (Brassica juncea), cabbage (Brassica oleracia), and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) 101,102 . AITC is a specific compound from the isothiocyanate (ITC) group that has been shown to have bactericidal, bacteristatic, and antifungal activities. AITCs are released upon disruption or injury of plant tissue due to hydrolysis of glucosinolates by cell wall-bound myrosinase 103,104 . Other important properties of ITC compounds are their high volatility, extreme pungency, and low water solubility.

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