The Insect Cuticle The First Line of Defence

The cuticle forms a mechanical barrier, made of chitin fibrils embedded in a protein matrix, on the exterior and the interior midgut, trachea, and genital tract regions of the insect (Wigglesworth, 1972). The outer layer of the cuticle (the epicuticle) is covered in a waxy layer containing lipids, fatty acids, and sterols. This chitinous exoskeleton is a matrix of carbohydrates and protein secreted from a monolayer of epidermal cells covering the entire surface area of the insect (Wigglesworth, 1972).

An intact cuticle effectively prevents entry of micro-organisms and injury of the cuticle activates the humoral responses such as melanisation around injured area and the production of AMPs to fight microbes at the site of entry (Kavanagh & Reeves, 2004).

Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

The Atkins Diet is here. Dr Atkins is known for his great low carb diets. Excluding, Dr Atkins carb counter and Dr Atkins New Diet Revolution.

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