It is surprising how little is known about the cellular mechanisms of internalization and killing of A. fumigatus by alveolar macrophages. Recent work indicates that following recognition by the macrophage dectin-1 receptor (see above) A. fumigatus conidia undergo F-actin-dependent phagosomal internalization and subsequent fusion with endosomes to form an acidic phagolysosome (Ibrahim-Granet et al., 2003). During the first few hours, conidia undergo swelling, an early stage in germination. Swelling activates a complex phagolysosomal-killing mechanism involving acidic proteases and NADPH-oxidase bleaching. This gradually (24-48 h) kills and disintegrates the ingested spore, deforming it into a sickle-shaped ghost. Importantly, alveolar macrophages collected from corticosteroid immune-suppressed mice, while showing no reduction in number, were significantly inhibited in their ability to produce reactive oxygen intermediates and to kill conidia (Philippe et al., 2003).

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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