Pattern Recognition Receptors

The task of recognition of different micro-organisms or essentially recognising non-self and the activation of the appropriate pathways is allocated to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) (Janeway, 1989). PRRs recognise general microbial components such as LPS and ß-1,3 glucans, and these complexes stimulate immune responses. Many PRRs exist in insects such as LPS-binding proteins (Kim et al., 2000; Koizumi et al., 1999), many different lectins (Yu et al., 2002; Koizumi et al., 1999), hemolin (Yu et al., 2002; Rasmuson et al., 1979; Lee et al., 2002), ß-1,3 glucan binding protein (Ochiai & Ashida, 2000; Ma et al., 2000; Jiang et al., 2003), Gram-negative bacterial recognition protein (Kim et al., 2000), peptidoglycan recognition protein (Zhu et al., 2003; Werner et al., 2000; Yu et al., 2002), and hemocytin (Kotani et al., 1995). The Toll and the immune deficiency (IMD) pathways integrate the signals from the PRRs and initiate the production of AMPs (Lau et al., 2003).

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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