NKT Cells

Natural killer T cells (NKT) are important innate and adaptive immune bridging cells. They are thought to be involved in the regulation of Th1 and Th2 cell development. Evidence for this regulation is seen in mice lacking NKT cells as Th1 responses are significantly reduced in mice infected with Cn (Kawakami et al., 2001a). During Cn infection, both the number and percentage of NKT cells in the lungs increase, as well as the expression of NKT specific gene Va14. Cells lacking Va14, and therefore NKT cells, are less able to fight Cn infection, as indicated by reduced IFN-y in lungs, reduced delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to Cn, and higher fungal burden in the lung (Kawakami et al., 2001a). Conversely, activation of NKT cells improves the host response to Cn. a-Galactoceramide, a synthetic lipid that is recognized by Va14 and activates NKT cells, activates NKT cells against Cn during infection, resulting in lower fungal burdens in the lung, but has no effect in mice lacking NKT cells (Kawakami et al., 2001b). The ability of NKT cells to inhibit Cn is also observed in passive transfer experiments in which thymocytes from older, resistant mice are transferred to younger, susceptible mice. The increased resistance in the recipient mice is due to NKT cells (Blackstock & Murphy, 2004a).

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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