Introduction

Advances in cancer medicine, transplantation biology, management of AIDS patients, and diabetics are responsible for the alarming expansion rates in the number of immu-nocompromised patients susceptible to life-threatening fungal infections. In response to these concerns, researchers have successfully labored at modifying some of the existing antifungals (polyenes and azoles) and introducing novel therapies (peptides, oligonucleotides, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)) that have collectively expanded the spectrum of activity and minimized associated side effects. Nonetheless, the classical approach of dealing with fungal infections by targeting the pathogen remains prone to failure over time owing to the extensive genetic flexibility of fungi to evade or resist antifungal therapeutics. Conditioning or modulating the immune system of the host may help circumvent the resistance problem. Vaccines, cytokines, and adoptive T cell transfer are the backbone of this approach.

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