Upstream processing

Biopharm production can be divided into 'upstream' and 'downstream' processing (Figure 5.5). Upstream processing refers to the initial fermentation process that results in the initial generation of product, i.e. the product biosynthesis phase. Downstream processing refers to the actual purification of the protein product and generation of finished product format (i.e. filling into its final product containers,

Figure 5.5 Overview of the production process for a biopharmaceutical product. Refer to text for specific details

freeze-drying if a dried product format is required), followed by sealing of the final product containers. Subsequent labelling and packaging steps represent the final steps of finished product manufacture.

Upstream processing is deemed to commence when a single vial of the working cell bank system (see later) is taken from storage and the cells therein cultured in order to initiate the biosynthesis of a batch of product. The production process is deemed complete only when the final product is filled in its final containers and those containers have been labelled and placed in their final product packaging.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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