Recombinant gonadotropins

Gonadotrophins are now also produced by recombinant DNA technology. The genes, or cDNAs coding for gonadotrophins from several species, have been identified and expressed in various

Table 11.9 Some notable non-gonadal tissues that express functional LH/hCG receptors

Pregnancy/fertility related tissue

Other tissue

Uterus

Skin

Cervix

Blood vessels

Placenta

Adrenal cortex

Oviduct

Brain tissue

Foetal membranes

Prostate gland

Seminal vesicles

Bladder

Sperm cells

Monocytes

Breast

Macrophages

recombinant host systems, particularly mammalian cell lines. rhFSH produced in CHO cells has proven clinically effective. Although exhibiting an amino acid sequence identical to the human molecule, its carbohydrate composition differs slightly. When administered to humans, the preparation is well tolerated and yields no unexpected side effects. It does not elicit an immunological response, and its plasma half-life is similar to the native hormone. rhFSH has proven efficacious in stimulating follicular growth in females suffering from hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and is effective in the treatment of males suffering from similar conditions. rhFSH was amongst the first biopharmaceutical substances to be approved for general medical use in Europe by the European Medicines Agency via the centralized application procedure (Chapter 4). Recombinant gonadotropins approved for general medical use are listed in Table 11.10 and additional details of one representative product (Ovitrelle) are provided in Box 11.6.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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