Pharmacogenetics relates to the emerging discipline of correlating specific gene DNA sequence information (specifically sequence variations) to drug response. As such, the pursuit will ultimately impinge directly upon the drug development process and should allow doctors to make better-informed decisions regarding what exact drug to prescribe to individual patients.

Different people respond differently to any given drug, even if they present with essentially identical disease symptoms. Optimum dose requirements, for example, can vary significantly. Furthermore, not all patients respond positively to a specific drug (e.g. IFN-P is of clinical benefit to only one in three multiple sclerosis patients; see Chapter 8). The range and severity of adverse effects induced by a drug can also vary significantly within a patient population base.

While the basis of such differential responses can sometimes be non-genetic (e.g. general state of health, etc.), genetic variation amongst individuals remains the predominant factor. Although all humans display almost identical genome sequences, some differences are evident. The most prominent widespread-type variations amongst individuals are known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, sometimes pronounced 'snips'). SNPs occur in the general population at an average incidence of 1 in every 1000 nucleotide bases; hence, the entire human genome harbours 3 million or so. SNPs are not mutations; the latter arise more infrequently, are more diverse and are generally caused by spontaneous/mutagen-induced mistakes in DNA repair/replication. SNPs occurring in structural genes/gene regulatory sequences can alter amino acid sequence/expression levels of a protein and, hence, affect its functional attributes. SNPs largely account for natural physical variations evident in the human population (e.g. height, colour of eyes, etc.).

The presence of an SNP within the regulatory or structural regions of a gene coding for a protein that interacts with a drug could obviously influence the effect of the drug on the body. In this context, the protein product could, for example, be the drug target or perhaps an enzyme involved in metabolizing the drug.

The identification and characterization of SNPs within the human genomes is, therefore, of both academic and applied interest. Several research groups continue to map human SNPs, and over 1.5 million have thus far been identified.

By identifying and comparing SNP patterns from a group of patients responsive to a particular drug with patterns displayed by a group of unresponsive patients, it may be possible to identify specific SNP characteristics linked to drug efficacy. In the same way, SNP patterns/characteristics associated with adverse reactions (or even a predisposition to a disease) may be uncovered. This could usher a new era of drug therapy where drug treatment could be tailored to the individual patient. Furthermore, different drugs could be developed with the foreknowledge that each would be efficacious when administered to specific (SNP-de-termined) patient sub-types. A (distant) futuristic scenario could be visualized where all individuals could carry chips encoded with SNP details relating to their specific genome, allowing medical staff to choose the most appropriate drugs to prescribe in any given circumstance.

Linking specific genetic determinants to many diseases, however, is unlikely to be as straightforward as implied thus far. The progress of most diseases, and the relative effectiveness of allied drug treatment, is dependent upon many factors, including the interplay of multiple gene products. 'Environmental' factors such as patient age, sex and general health also play a prominent role.

The term 'pharmacogenomics' is one that has entered the 'genomic' vocabulary. Although sometimes used almost interchangeably with pharmacogenetics, it more specifically refers to studying the pattern of expression of gene products involved in a drug response.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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