Oilbased emulsion adjuvants

The adjuvanticity of oil emulsions was first recognized in the early 1900s. However, the first such product to gain widespread attention was Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), developed in 1937. This product essentially contained a mixture of paraffin (i.e. mineral) oil with dead mycobacteria, formulated to form a water-in-oil emulsion. Arlacel A (mannide mono-oleate) is usually added as an emulsifier.

Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) is a similar product. It differs from FCA in that it lacks the mycobacterial component and, consequently, displays somewhat lesser adjuvanticity. The mode of action of FIA is largely attributed to depot formation. The mycobacterial components in FCA have additional direct immunostimulatory activities. Although it is one of the most potent adjuvant substances known, FCA is too toxic for human use.

Latterly, some oil-in-water adjuvants have been developed. Many are squalene-in-water emulsions. Emulsifiers most commonly used include polyalcohols, such as Tween and Span. In some cases, immunostimulatory molecules (including MDP and TDM; see Section 13.5.4) have also been incorporated in order to enhance adjuvanticity. These continue to be carefully assessed and may well form a future family of useful adjuvant preparations.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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