Diafiltration

Diafiltration is a process whereby an ultrafiltration system is utilized to reduce or eliminate low molecular mass molecules from a solution and is sometimes employed as part of biopharmaceuti-cal downstream processing. In practice, this normally entails the removal of, for example, salts, ethanol and other solvents, buffer components, amino acids, peptides, added protein stabilizers or other molecules from a protein solution. Diafiltration is generally preceded by an ultrafiltration step to reduce process volumes initially. The actual diafiltration process is identical to that of ultrafiltration, except for the fact that the level of reservoir is maintained at a constant volume. This is achieved by the continual addition of solvent lacking the low molecular mass molecules that are to be removed. By recycling the concentrated material and adding sufficient fresh solvent to the system such that five times the original volume has emerged from the system as permeate, over 99

per cent of all molecules that freely cross the membrane will have been removed ('flushed out') from the solution. Removal of low molecular weight contaminants from protein solutions may also be achieved by other techniques, such as dialysis or gel-filtration chromatography. Diafiltration, however, is emerging as the method of choice, as it is quick, efficient and utilizes the same equipment as used in ultrafiltration.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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