After Birth Ebook

Getting Back Into Shape After The Pregnancy

Getting Back Into Shape After The Pregnancy

Once your pregnancy is over and done with, your baby is happily in your arms, and youre headed back home from the hospital, youll begin to realize that things have only just begun. Over the next few days, weeks, and months, youre going to increasingly notice that your entire life has changed in more ways than you could ever imagine.

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Pregnancy Without Pounds

This proven program will get you through your pregnancy in better shape than most other women in as little as 27 minutes a day and with minimal effort. It contains all the information that I believe will Help you to look and feel like I did barefoot and beautiful! Inside you will learn Exactly how to avoid unwanted pounds, overcome your food cravings, care for your skin, dress to kill and look like one Hot Mama. Ive also put together Fifty simple, yet extremely effective pregnancy-friendly exercises and stretches to keep you and your body looking and feeling Great (includes 3 different fitness programs depending on Your fitness level)!

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Author: Michelle Moss
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Recommended Maternal Weight Gains In Nondiabetic Pregnancies

Optimal weight gain for pregnancy needs to reflect the woman's pre-pregnancy weight (22). The guidelines on recommended maternal weight gains are based on large obstetric surveys in non-diabetic women in the United States (23). The maternal weight gain required to minimise the frequency of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants is higher for underweight (BMI35 kg m2, the risk of a SGA infant is low and even when little or no maternal weight gain occurs the risk of a SGA infant does not appear to increase (11). Overweight (BMI 26.1-29 kg m2) and obese (BMI 29 kg m2) women are more likely to give birth to a LGA infant than normal weight women and this risk increases with increasing maternal weight gain. The US obstetric recommendation for a minimum 7 kg weight gain for all obese women (23,24) may not be universally appropriate (11,25). Nutritional advice given in pregnancy should include appropriate weight gain targets set in early pregnancy and based on pre-pregnancy weight.

Continence Abnormalities

A published study by Sultan et al.24 revealed anal sphincter defects in 30 to 40 of asymptomatic postpartum females. Fortunately, the minority of these patients were symptomatic (32 ). However, these patients may become symptomatic later in life or with subsequent vaginal deliveries. In addition, pudendal nerve injury documented by electromyography has been demonstrated in 42 of post-partum females by Snooks et al.25,26 Sixty percent of these patients recovered nerve function 2 months after delivery, but 40 did not. Four percent of 906 postpartum women in a study by MacArthur et al.27 reported new symptoms of incontinence after childbirth. Sultan et al.28 showed a 1 incidence of frank fecal incontinence and a 25 incidence of decreased flatal control at 9 months' follow-up after vaginal delivery.

Distal Effects of Myelination and Myelin as a Neuronal Maturation Factor

The primary phase of myelination in the rodent CNS begins 1 to 2 weeks after birth and continues for several more weeks. A number of changes in the properties of CNS neurons exhibit a similar time course. For example, NFH is low at birth and increases to approach adult levels several weeks after birth in rats (Carden et al., 1987) and levels of tubulin as well as expression of different tubulin ioforms also change during this interval (Lewis et al., 1985). Slow axonal transport is high in neonates and decreases at approximately 3 weeks postnatal (McQuarrie et al., 1989 Willard and Simon, 1983). The temporal pattern of these events, along with a failure to observe comparable changes in Shiverer, indicates that formation of compact myelination triggers these neuronal changes.

Genes the brain and the mind

The most influential capacities of the environment for the development of the brain come after birth. It is interesting in this respect that humans are born with a brain weight of around 350 g, approximatively the same brain weight as a chimpanzee. However, from that time on, while the brain of the human reaches a final weight of 1400 g that of the chimpanzee will only reach 450 g. The importance of this observation is that the chimpanzee is born with 60 to 65 per cent of the final brain weight while the human is born with only 20 to 25 per cent. In other words, more than 70 per cent of the total brain weight of the human is obtained in immediate contact with the environment, and it is this environment which shapes the final synaptology of the brain during development.

Neuropilin in Pathological Angiogenesis

NRPs are more highly expressed in the developing embryo as compared with the normal adult, but are induced following injury such as ischemia. Several pathologies that are characterized by ischemia-induced angiogenesis have shown NRP1 upregulation. For example, in the adult mouse, NRP1 expression in ischemic brain was significantly upreg-ulated as early as two hours and persisted at least 28 days after focal cerebral ischemia. There was a marked increase in NRP1 expression in EC of cerebral blood vessels at the border and in the core of the ischemic lesion after seven days. These results suggest that upregulation of NRP1 may contribute to neovascular formation in the adult ischemic brain. In another mouse ischemia model system, very little NRP2 expression was observed in normal blood vessels after birth. However, NRP2 expression was induced in newly sprouting blood vessels in response to ischemia in a hind limb model in which the femoral artery was occluded. Increased NRP1 expression...

Maturation Of Oligodendrocytes And Formation Of The Myelin Sheath

The maturation of oligodendrocyte precursors into myeli-nating oligodendrocytes occurs at different times in different fiber tracts during development. A general principle is that myelination of fiber tracts begins with the phylogenetically oldest fiber tracts. Hence, myelination of motor and sensory fiber roots and cerebellar peduncles precedes association with cortical areas. This pattern is dramatically illustrated in the human, wherein motor and sensory roots in the PNS begin myelination as early as the fourth fetal month and is completed within several months after birth, whereas association areas are still being myelinated into the third decade (90). Another rule of thumb is that myelination proceeds rostrocaudally in the spinal cord but caudorostrally in the brainstem. In the mouse, myelination begins in the ventral funiculi at birth, in the optic nerve 5 days postnatally (Figure 2.6), and in the corpus callosum approximately 14 days postnatally. Although gradients of...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

DeSouza et al.30 reported their experience with endoanal MRI in six women who developed incontinence immediately after childbirth. The MRI revealed the site and extent of the defect in all patients, and the findings were confirmed at the time of surgery. In another group of 16 patients who developed incontinence 15 to 30 years after childbirth, no demonstrable defect was found, but in all cases, atrophy of the external sphincter muscle was revealed. The degree of atrophy did not correlate with the degree of delay in pudendal nerve conduction velocity.

Of their injuries as well as for child whose home is unsafe if CPS

A femur fracture occurring at birth would be expected to cause decreased mobility or pseudoparesis of the leg and signs of tenderness shortly after birth, not 3 weeks later. The x-rays themselves show an acute injury with no signs of healing of the fracture. Fractures, except for skull fractures, typically show radiographic signs of healing within 7-14 days of injury. A fracture showing no early signs of healing could not have occurred more than 14 days prior to x-ray. An acute nonhealing fracture in a 3-week-old infant could not have occurred at birth. The healing rib fractures, not seen initially, but seen in follow-up x-rays further emphasize this point.

C T De Rosa PhD H Hansen S Wilbur H R Pohl H A ElMasri M M Mumtaz

A 5 x 5 x 5 factorial design was utilized to identify nonadditive effects on developmental toxicity in Fischer 344 rats caused by combinations of trichloroethylene (TCE), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and heptachlor (HEPT) (78). The 5 x 5 x 5 full-factorial design was selected to detect binary and tertiary interactions among the chemicals in the mixture. The chemicals were administered by gavage to Fischer 344 rats on gestation days 6-15. Dose levels were 0, 10.1, 32, 101, and 320 mg kg d for TCE 0, 24.7, 78, 247, and 780 mg kg d for DEHP and 0, 0.25, 0.8, 2.5, and 8 mg kg d for HEPT. The dams were allowed to deliver, and their pups were weighed and examined postnatally. Of the nine endpoints that were analyzed statistically, six had significant binary interactions. Both synergistic and antagonistic interactions were detected among the three components. Maternal death showed no main effects, but DEHP and HEPT were synergistic. For maternal weight gain on gestation days 6-8, main...

Hypothalamic PituitaryAdrenal Axis and Glucocorticoid Responses

The many functions of glucocorticoids are elicited through the glucocor-ticoid receptor (GR), a cytosolic receptor. This receptor, along with receptors such as the thyroid hormone, mineralocorticoid, estrogen and progesterone receptors, is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily (Evans, 1988). For GR, the receptor is located in the cytoplasm in a protein complex, which includes Hsp90 and Hsp70, in the absence of ligand. When the ligand binds, GR is released from the protein complex, dimerizes, and translocates to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, GR regulates gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) (Aranda and Pascual, 2001 Schoneveld et al., 2004). GR is able to upregulate gene expression, such as for the gluconeogenic enzyme tyrosine animotransferase (TAT) (Jantzen et al., 1987), through direct DNA binding. However, it can also repress gene activation, such as the POMC gene, by direct binding to DNA sequences...

Low Levels of IGFI and Phase I of ROP

Since suppression of IGF-i can suppress neovascularization, in phase II of ROP we hypothesized that IGF-I is critical to normal retinal vascular development and that a lack of IGF-I in the early neonatal period is associated with poor vascular growth and with subsequent proliferative ROP. After birth, IGF-I levels decrease from in utero levels due to the loss of IGF-I provided by the placenta and the amniot-ic fluid.

Clinical Phenotype of Pemphigus Vulgaris

Neonatal pemphigus may occur due to the diaplacentar transfer of anti-Dsg3 IgG4 from mothers with PV to their unborn children. After birth, the newborns exhibit crusty erosions of the skin with the histopathological findings of PV Once circulating autoAbs are degraded, these skin lesions disappear after a few months.

Myotonic Dystrophy Molecular Basis of Disease

Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common inherited form of muscular dystrophy affecting adults, having an incidence of approximately 1 in 8,000 individuals. DM is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and myotonia. The diagnosis can be problematic because of the wide range and severity of symptoms. Often, affected individuals have children before they are diagnosed. A severe congenital form of DM results in mental retardation, respiratory distress, hypotonia, and in many cases death due to respiratory complications shortly after birth. The congenital form is seen in the offspring of women who are themselves mildly affected.17 The clinical genetic phenomenon of anticipation occurs in DM. Anticipation denotes progressively earlier appearance of a disease in successive generations, generally with increasing severity.

Spinal Muscular Atrophy Molecular Basis of Disease

Denervation and atrophy resulting in the symptoms of weakness and paralysis. Spinal muscular atrophy is the second-most common fatal autosomal recessive disorder after cystic fibrosis, with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 10,000 live births.26 Childhood SMA is subdivided into three clinical groups on the basis of age of onset and clinical course. Type I SMA (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease) is characterized by severe, generalized muscle weakness and hypotonia at birth or within the first three months after birth. Death from respiratory failure usually occurs within the first two years of life. Children affected with Type II SMA are able to sit, although they cannot stand or walk unaided, and survive beyond four years of age. Type III SMA (Kugelberg-Welander syndrome) is a milder form, with onset during infancy or youth, and patients may walk unaided.

Energy Requirements In Pregnancy

Table 7.2 The 1990 guidelines of the United States Institute of Medicine on maternal weight gain targets according to pre-pregnancy BMI Table 7.2 The 1990 guidelines of the United States Institute of Medicine on maternal weight gain targets according to pre-pregnancy BMI

Clinical Utility of Testing

Molecular diagnosis of PKU serves several purposes, including prognosis, confirmation of clinical and newborn screening results, carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis, and information for genetic counseling. The genotype-phenotype correlations can be used to direct the degree of restriction of phenylalanine in the diet (Table 8-1). Moreover, for patients with mild mutations in the BH4 cofactor-binding region (V190A, R241C, A300S, A313T, E390G, A403V, and P407S), overloading with BH4 can increase PAH activity and may be used as an alternative to dietary restriction.2 Prenatal diagnosis allows for the termination of an affected fetus or can ensure immediate therapeutic intervention after birth. Proper genetic counseling assists parents in making informed decisions.

Definitions and rates statistics for international comparison

The perinatal period commences at 22 completed weeks (154 days) of gestation and ends seven completed days after birth. The neonatal period begins with birth and ends 28 complete days after birth. Neonatal deaths may be subdivided into early neonatal deaths, occurring during the first seven days of life (0-6 days), and late neonatal deaths, occurring after the seventh day but before the 28th day of life (7-27 days).

Prenatally Diagnosed Neuroblastoma

With the advent of routine prenatal ultrasonography, the diagnosis of fetal (Ho et al. 1993 Toma et al. 1994 Jennings et al. 1993) or congenital (Granata et al. 2000 Forman et al. 1990) neuroblastoma has become more common. The tumor may be solid or cystic (Atkinson et al. 1986 Hamada et al. 1999) and may be localized (stage 1) or associated with liver metastases (stage 4S Toma et al. 1994). Subcutaneous nodules are frequently present. At birth, these findings can be confirmed by ultrasonography. In addition to NB,the differential diagnosis of an adrenal mass detected prenatally or at birth includes extralobar pulmonary sequestration (Curtis et al. 1997) and adrenal hemorrhage (Strouse et al. 1995 Burbige 1993). Many adrenal hemorrhages show shrinkage within 2 weeks after birth however, shrinkage of an adrenal hemorrhage may sometimes take weeks to months. These masses therefore may be confused with tumor. On the other hand, regressing NB in a neonate can also mimic adrenal hemorrhage...

Developmental Aspects Of Photoperiodism

Further studies were performed to explore how the photoperiodic mechanism of the pups is modified by the photoperiod experience of the dam during gestation. The results indicated that the responsiveness of juvenile male hamsters to daily MEL infusions, administered at 14-32 days after birth, was not altered by the gestational photoperiod (37). However, the PMR of the male pups was influenced by gestational photoperiod. When raised from birth in 14 L and examined 18 days postpartum, males whose mothers had been exposed to shorter day lengths produced longer duration MEL peaks as compared to males whose mothers were exposed to long days during pregnancy. This effect of gestation photoperiod on the PMR of the juvenile males could explain the differences in rate of postnatal testis development between pups gestated in long and short days, respectively. It seems likely that the maternal influence could be exerted via an action of the dam's PMR on the circadian system of the fetus perhaps...

Diet And Insulin Therapy For

Once diet alone can no longer consistently ensure fasting glucose values below 5.5 mmol l and a 1 h post-prandial value below 7 mmol l, the introduction of insulin should be considered (63). It is important to recognise that a small proportion of women will require insulin early in pregnancy and not to assume dietary non-compliance (92). Those requiring insulin are the most metaboli-cally compromised and tend to have both the highest perinatal complications and the fastest deterioration to diabetes after pregnancy (93). Insulin is also occasionally introduced in later pregnancy for obstetric rather than glycaemic reasons this might occur for accelerated foetal growth or unexplained polyhydramnios (94).

Longterm Dietary Advice For The Mother And Her Child

Ideally all women with GDM should receive lifestyle advice and education in pregnancy that is relevant to after pregnancy. It will be an important challenge to find methods of delivering dietetic education and advice both effectively and cheaply to enable all women with GDM to receive the necessary ongoing support and care they require after pregnancy in the community.

Early adverse experience

Variations in maternal care produce individual differences in neuroendocrine responses to stress in rats. The offspring of mothers that exhibited more licking and grooming of pups during the first 10 days after birth showed, in adult life, reduced plasma ACTH and corticosterone responses to acute stress. (15) In addition, there was increased hippocampal glucocorticoid-receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, enhanced glucocorticoid feedback sensitivity, and decreased levels of hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA. Greater early maternal attention also substantially reduced subsequent behavioural fearfulness in response to novelty, increased benzodiazepine receptor density in the amygdala and locus coeruleus, increased a (2)-adrenoreceptor density in the locus coeruleus, and decreased CRH receptor density in the locus coeruleus. Thus, maternal care serves to programme behavioural responses to stress in the offspring by altering the development of the neural systems...

Periventricular Leukomalacia PVL

PVL was originally described in postmortem brain by Banker and Larroche as symmetric bilateral necrosis of periventricular white matter that is most severe around the frontal horns and in the occipital-parietal region around the ventricular trigone.55 As neuroimaging with head ultrasound and then MRI scanning developed, PVL could be studied in more detail in living infants and a greater variety of lesions was apparent.56 PVL associated with cystic lesions in the white matter can often be observed to develop in premature infants with serial imaging in the postnatal pe-riod.56 In this type, there may be little evidence of pathology initially after birth, but

Protocadherins And Synapse Development

Three families of protocadherin (Pcdh) genes, Pcdh-a, -ft, and -y are clustered in a tandem array on a single chromosome in mammals. Members of these Pcdh families are expressed in an overlapping, combinatorial manner in the nervous system and the proteins they encode are present at some synaptic sites. This has led to the hypothesis that protocadherins may provide an adhesive code involved in the specification of synaptic patterning. Mice in which the 22-gene Pcdh- y cluster has been deleted or disrupted die shortly after birth with synaptic defects that may be consistent with such a function. This chapter reviews these and other recent data on the organization, expression, and function of the clustered Pcdh genes and enumerates several unanswered questions that will be important to address in future work.

Receptors and Signal Transduction

The AT2 receptor is also capable of binding angiotensin II. The functional significance of this receptor is not fully understood, but it might be involved in angiogenesis and the regulation of cerebral blood flow. AT2 receptors are highly expressed in neonatal tissue. AT2 levels decrease sharply after birth, but persist into adulthood in the brain and in some other tissues in rats. Additional findings have led to the proposal that the AT2 receptor might be involved in differentiation, development and or apoptosis.

Melatonin And Prenatal Communication Of Circadian Phase

In mature rodents, light is the most potent signal for synchronization of endogenous circadian rhythmicity to environmental cyclicity. Direct and indirect pathways from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are involved in the process of photic entrainment. During development, entrainment of the biological clock begins prior to the development of the retinohypothalamic tract. Indeed, studies in rats, hamsters, mice, and monkeys indicate that the biological clock in the SCN is functional (rhythmic) and entrained prior to birth (Figure 1, lower panel for reviews see 13,14,53,56). Prenatal entrainment requires the presence of the maternal SCN, indicating that the mother plays an active role in the entrainment of her fetuses (15,51). The potency of the mother as an entraining cue (Zeitgeber) decreases during the first week after birth, coincident with the appearance of circadian sensitivity to light. Maternal communication of time-of-day information is thus thought to reflect a...

Murmurs From Leftto Right Shunts

Represents failure of the vessel connecting the aorta and the pulmonary artery to close after birth. Flow is throughout the cardiac cycle, because aortic pressure is higher than pulmonary pressure, except if there is pulmonary hypertension. Typically produces a continuous murmur, peaking at S2.

Question And Answer Session

NAMBOODIRI We measured acetate levels in the brain after Triacetin supplementation, and we found that the levels were increased significantly. So we know it is getting into brain. Our plan is to start early on, soon after birth. In our studies, we find that free acetate is going up in the liver and brain after Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate) administration, so we know that the glyceryl triacetate is not inert.

Correcting reported data

Reported mortality rates were verified and corrected when the necessary numbers were available, using the definitions detailed in Annex 3. This applies, for example, to surveys that tended to use one month (usually defined as 30 days) and 0-7 days (corresponding to 8 days), rather than 28 days and 7 days , after birth in the numerator of neonatal and early neonatal rates, respectively. Early neonatal mortality rates were calculated from the day-by-day deaths reported in surveys and corrected for obvious heaping by attributing half of deaths on day 8 to early neonatal deaths and half to late neonatal deaths.

Richard N Villar and Nicola Santori

Changes so that at birth it becomes shallower and covers just one-third of a complete sphere. After birth, this process reverses and the cavity steadily deepens once more. The progressive shallowing of the acetab-ulum allows an increased range of movement at the time of birth.

Inhibition of YSecretase

Y-Secretase is a complex consisting of the presenilins, nicastrin and anterior pharynx defective-1 (Aph-1), and presenilin enhancer-2 (Pen-2), with the presenilins constituting the catalytic site of the complex (Haass, 2004). Presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 are encoded by different genes, mutations of which are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion causing a particularly aggressive early-onset form of familial AD. Y-Secretase is involved in the intramembrane proteolysis of a number of other substrates in addition to APP, including P-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels, the immunoglobulin superfamily recognition molecule L1, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, growth hormone receptor, apoER2 lipoprotein receptor, LRP, Erb B4 receptor, CD44, p75 neurotrophin receptor, Nectin-1a, syndecan-3, E- and N-cadherins, and Notch (Cai, Jiang, Grant, & Boulton, 2006 Cowan et al., 2005 Kim, Ingano, Carey, Pettingell, & Kovacs, 2005 Maretzky et al., 2005 Wong et al., 2005). The...

Vesicular Monoamine Transporter VMAT Null Mice

Administration of reserpine or tetrabenazine, which are very potent vesicular monoamine transporter inhibitors (30,31), results in complete neurotransmitter depletion from amine-containing neurons. When given chronically, treatment with these drugs will have anti-hypertensive properties by depleting the pool of blood circulating monoamines reserpine is actually the cheapest hypotensive drug, still widely used in countries that cannot afford expensive treatments (32). Depletion in the central pool of monoamines by these inhibitors may produce depressive-like effects, as opposed to those that are observed in antidepressant treatments. Such observations in the late 1950s were actually the basis for establishing the role of aminergic transmission in psychiatric disorders (33). In the long term, high doses of reserpine will eventually be lethal. However, it was surmised that such lethality is a consequence of both central and peripheral effects on monoamines. The molecular cloning of two...

From Perceptionaction Coupling To Emotion Sharing

The view that self-perspective is the default way that we socially operate is coherent with the perception-action coupling mechanism. This notion reflects the idea that the perception of a given behavior in another individual automatically activates one's own motor representations of that behavior (Preston & de Waal, 2002). Such a view is grounded in the fundamental physiological properties of the nervous system regarding the continuity between action and cognition, which is primarily based on perception and action cycles (Sperry, 1952). These processes are functionally intertwined perception is a means to action, and action is a means to perception, and both operate right after birth. The automatic mapping between self and other is also supported by considerable empirical literature in the domain of perception and action in both cognitive and social psychology, which has been marshaled under the common-coding theory (Dijksterhuis & Bargh, 2001 Prinz, 1997). This theory

And the mt1 mRNA in the PT and SCN of the Syrian Hamster

Animals New born Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetusauratus) from our own colony were kept from birth in long photoperiod (LP, 14L 10D). Animals were sacrificed at various times after birth from birthday to postnatal day 60 (PN 60). All the animals were sacrificed at 5pm (1 hour before lights off). The entire head (PN 0 and PN 8) or brains (PN 21, PN 30 and PN 60) of the animals were rapidly dissected out and frozen in -30 C isopentane, and maintained at -80 C until cryosectioning (20 (im thick).

Reproductive toxicity and teratogenicity

These reproductive toxicity studies complement teratogenicity studies, which aim to assess whether the drug promotes any developmental abnormalities in the foetus. (A teratogen is any substance agent that can induce foetal developmental abnormalities. Examples include alcohol, radiation and some viruses.) Daily doses of the drug are administered to pregnant females of at least two species (usually rats and rabbits). The animals are sacrificed close to term and a full autopsy on the mother and foetus ensues. Post-natal toxicity evaluation often forms an extension of such studies. This entails administration of the drug to females both during and after pregnancy, with assessment of mother and progeny not only during pregnancy, but also during the lactation period. Therapeutic proteins rarely display any signs of reproductive toxicity or teratogenicity.

Receptor Mediated Mechanisms for Endocannabinoid Activities in the Central Nervous System

LPA bears structural similarities to 2-AG. Contos et al. (98) have demonstrated that targeted deletion of the receptor gene for LPA resulted in a defective suckling response in the knockout mice. This phenomenon is strikingly similar to the mortality of SR141716A-treated pups, which also die within days after birth due to a lack of milk ingestion from birth (99). Therefore it is possible that LPA and cannabinoids crossreact with their respective receptors. The sparse data available thus far do not support such a hypothesis. Thus SR141716A-induced inhibition of cannabinoid-stimulated p38 mito-gen-activated protein kinases did not alter the effects of LPA on p38-MAPK phosphorylation (100). Moreover, whereas THC completely reversed the effects of neonatally applied SR141716A, LPA did not (99). In both these reports, oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phos-phate were used. Thus it remains to be seen whether other LPA species, notably LPA from arachidonic acid, will display cross-reactivity with...

Capillary Hemangioma

It usually is clinically apparent at birth or within the first few weeks after birth. It tends to cause progressive proptosis during the first few months of life and then it becomes stable and slowly regresses. Orbital imaging studies show a diffuse, poorly circumscribed, orbital mass that enhances with contrast material. The best management is refraction and treatment of any induced amblyopia with patching of the opposite eye. Local injection of corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids can hasten the regression of the mass and minimize the complications.

Integration Of Newborn Neurons Into Adult Circuits

As early as 14 days after birth, some of the new neurons have reached the olfactory bulb and migrate radially to their final position. At this stage, they already display dendritic spines, which suggest that they are receiving synaptic inputs. Indeed, soon after new cells enter the layers of the olfactory bulb, they

Neural Stem Cell Death In The Adult

New neurons in the dentate gyrus originate in the subgranular zone, located between the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal hilus (120). These neurons attain both morphological and functional characteristics of dentate granule neurons, and may have roles in hippocampal memory formation or mood homeostasis. Many of these cells seem to die soon after birth (122,124,125). In the rodent, strain-dependent factors may influence survival of newly generated neurons in the dentate gyrus (126). The number of newly generated neurons may be increased by cognitive tasks, but it is not entirely clear whether this effect is due to prevention of programmed cell death or to a generalized increase in hippocampal neurogenesis (122,127). A percentage of newly generated neurons in the adult dentate gyrus do appear pyknotic and exposure to alcohol or nicotine increases pyknosis, TUNEL positivity, and activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus (128,129).

Normal Sleep In Children

Long-term longitudinal data have been published by Iglowstein et al. (12) to illustrate the developmental course and age-specific variability of sleep patterns. As part of the Zurich Longitudinal Studies, they followed 493 children for 16 years. The study used structured sleep-related questionnaires at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after birth and then at annual intervals until 16 years of age. Total sleep duration decreased from an average of 14.2 hours standard deviation (SD) 1.9 hours at six months of age to an average of 8.1 hours (SD 0.8 hours) at 16 years of age. Total sleep duration decreased across the studied cohorts (1974-1993) because bedtime became later, but wake time remained essentially unchanged. Between 1.5 years and 4 years of age, there was a prominent decline in napping habits. At 1.5 years of age 96.4 of children had naps by four years of age only 35.4 napped.

Reproducibility Of The Glomerular Array

We hypothesize that in addition to OR sequence, OR level, and positional cell type, the temporal expression pattern is a critical determinant. Unfortunately and surprisingly, ignorance rules. Very little information is available about the onset of OR expression and the kinetics of the expansion of the population of OSNs expressing a particular OR gene in mouse moreover, such data have not been related to the dynamics of glomerular development in a comparative fashion among OR genes. No information is available about the first arrival of axons ofOSNs expressing a particular OR gene, and their behavior at the surface ofthe olfactory bulb. No time-lapse imaging system, in vivo or in explants, is available formouse. Aglobal study ofglomerular development indicates that the development of glomeruli in the rostral part ofthe rat olfactory bulb is two to four days ahead of the caudal part, but substantial heterogeneity exists within a microregion (Bailey et al. 1999). P2 glomeruli form in...

Psychopharmacological treatments

One-third of pregnant women take psychotropic drugs at least once during pregnancy, but no preparations are entirely appropriate for expectant mothers. The first trimester is a time of particular risk. Intra-uterine exposure to lithium probably increases the risk of congenital malformation, but such a risk has not been found for most antidepressants and neuroleptics. Intra-uterine exposure during the second and third trimesters can lead to postnatal complications, such as the floppy-infant syndrome after taking benzodiazepines, and extrapyramidal-motor effects on the newborn after neuroleptic therapy during pregnancy. The increased risk of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period often necessitates psychopharmacological intervention. Lithium prophylaxis in manic-depressive women is indicated after childbirth, and weaning rather than omission of drug treatment is preferable during the puerperium.

Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus

The majority of intraventricular hemorrhages occur within the first few days after birth. In addition to prematurity, vigorous resuscitation, respiratory distress syndrome, pneumothoraces and seizures are among the factors associated with an increased risk of development of hemorrhage, with pronounced fluctuations in cerebral blood flow being the possible final pathway. Although hemorrhages may occur in the absence of clinical signs, the more extensive lesions may be associated with seizures, brady-cardias and apnoeic spells.

R M Kostrzewa1 J P Kostrzewa1 R Brus2 R A Kostrzewa1 and P Nowak2

Rats lesioned shortly after birth with 6-hydroxydopamine are posed as a near-ideal model of severe Parkinson's disease, because of the non-lethality of the procedure, near-total destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers, near-total dopamine (DA)-denervation of striatum, reproducibility of effect, and relative absence of overt behavioral effects - there is no aphasia, no adipsia, and no change in motor activity. In vivo mi-crodialysis findings reinforce the utility of the animal model, clearly demonstrating L-DOPA beneficial actions without an increase in hy-droxyl radical production.

Plasticity Of Olfactory Microcircuits

Olfaction is often studied in the context of learning and memory. Interestingly, very few reports have appeared that describe synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory in other systems, such as spike-timing-dependent synaptic modulation or structural dendritic plasticity in the olfactory bulb antennal lobe. Nevertheless, experience-related plasticity is observed at multiple levels. For example, prenatal exposure of pregnant mothers to food odors causes enhanced sensory responses to these odors in pups after birth, and supervised and nonsupervised plasticity mechanisms can change odor-evoked spatial or temporal activity patterns in the olfactory bulb antennal lobe (Freeman and Schneider 1982 Kendrick et al. 1992 Faber et al. 1999 Stopfer and Laurent 1999). The olfactory bulb antennal lobe receives centrifugal inputs that express neuro-modulators (acetylcholine, serotonin, and norepinephrine in vertebrates and octopamine, dopamine, and serotonin in insects). These...

The Hippocampus As A Sex Hormonesensitive Limbic Brain Region Involved In Cognition And The Cognitive Aspects Of Emotion

Thyroid hormone treatment immediately after birth has specific effects on the basal forebrain, dentate gyrus, and CA3 region of the hippocampus that last into adult life. Transient neonatal hyperthyroidism enhances basal forebrain cholinergic markers and increases the size of the dentate gyrus and branching of dendrites of CA3 pyramidal neurons (35,43,44). There are sex differences, in that the developing male cholinergic system is much more enhanced by the neonatal hyperthyroid state (43). Moreover, the direction of the thyroid hormone effect in the hippocampal formation is very much like that of testosterone (T), namely, to increase the size of the dentate gyrus and increase innervation of the CA3 pyramidal neurons (33).

Cellular And Molecular Processes Regulated By Circulating Hormones

The hippocampus also undergoes two other forms of plasticity, in which circulating hormones and excitatory amino acids acting via NMDA receptors are involved. One of these is the ongoing neurogenesis in the adult rat dentate gyrus, which continues for at least 1 yr after birth and can be increased either by adrenalectomy or by treatment with an NMDA receptor antagonist (46). Although the male dentate gyrus is larger than that of the female (33), there is no information at present concerning the role of gonadal hormones in adult life in ongoing neurogenesis, although preliminary data has noted sex differences in neurogenesis in the adult prairie vole (42). Dentate gyrus granule neurons innervate the CA3 region of Ammon's horn, and stress causes apical dendrites of CA3 pyramidal neurons to undergo atrophy by a process that is dependent in part on circulating adrenal steroids and in part on excitatory amino acids acting via NMDA receptors (47). Hibernation also causes dendrites of CA3...

HSF4 and HSF1 Cooperate in the Formation of the Lens

The demonstration of the role of hsf4 in the development of the lens was provided by the very elegant study of Akira Nakai's group (Fujimoto et al. 2004). HSF4 is expressed in both epithelial and fiber cells. Hsf4-null mice are viable, fertile, have the same weight as the wild-type animals, and exhibit no major abnormalities of the brain, lung, testis, or ovary. The animals suffer from cataract. The lens fiber cells contain inclusion-like structures rich in aA-and aB-crystallins, which can be detected as early as 2 days after birth. The authors show that the main direct targets of HSF4 are the y-crystallin genes. But HSF4 also represses the fgf (1 and 4) gene expression in epithelial cells, which proliferate in its absence, whereas HSF1 has an opposite effect. In the doublenull animals, the level of expression of FGFs and the number of epithelial cells returns to normal, demonstrating the antagonistic effects of HSF1 and HSF4 anticipated by Zhang et al. (2001), and suggesting a...

Dennett development and design

The position is rather different when we come to development and multiple sets of rules. How are we to interpret the notion of what is 'hard-wired', stable and general Take first the issue of wiring. In human development, in contrast to that of other organisms, the neuronal connections of the brain develop substantially after birth (Changeux 1985). Evidence from animal experiments,

Keeping the Balance Implications for Health and Disease

Because of their ability to modulate the balance between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation, eicosanoids provide a highly responsive mechanism for regulating organ and tissue blood flow. An excellent example of this is the effect of PGE2 on the ductus arteriosus. Fetuses have high circulating levels of PGE2, and in the 1970s, experiments on fetal lambs showed that the vasodilatatory effects of PGE2 are responsible for the maintenance of ductus arteriosus patency in utero. After birth, PGE2 levels decrease dramatically, a response associated with closure of the ductus arteriosus and establishment of postnatal patterns of pulmonary artery blood flow. Because they inhibit PGE2 production, NSAIDs such as indomethacin are used to induce ductus closure in low-birth-weight infants who have persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus. Conversely, the synthetic agent, PGEj, is administered to infants when maintenance of a patent ductus arteriosus is beneficial. This situation occurs in...

Cardiovascular system

B After birth, because of expansion of the lungs and separation of the placenta, there is a reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance with the first breath and an increase in systemic vascular resistance resulting from loss of the low resistance placenta. (Rogers MC, et al. Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care, 3rd Edition pp. 397-411.)

Treatment of neonates

It is today agreed that every case of congenital toxoplasmosis should be treated whether or not the newborn infant displays clinical manifestation. Treatment should be instituted as soon as possible after birth, and given for a minimum of 6 months, usually 1 year. Therapy beyond 12 months is only recommended in cases where the infection is still active. In infants with symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis prospective studies from the United States using pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine continuously for a whole year showed striking effects on the ophthalmologic follow-up (Mets et al. 1996), neuro developmental outcome (McAuley et al. 1994), and hearing loss (McGee et al. 1992). The key question is whether or not treatment is necessary in sub-clinical cases with no symptoms at all. Controlled trials with long prospective follow-ups do not exist. There is, however, historical evidence that early treatment protects against development of late ocular lesions and cerebral symptoms (Wilson et al....

Clinical aspects and treatment of ALAS2 deficiency

The clinical picture of ALAS2 deficiency is that of a hypo-chromic microcytic anemia with bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia as a result of ineffective erythropoiesis. The characteristic ring sideroblasts are found mainly in the late erythroid precursors. There is considerable heterogeneity in the severity of the disease, not only between individuals bearing different ALAS2 mutations but also between related individuals with the same mutation. Patients at one extreme may present a few months after birth with severe anemia, severe microcytosis and no response to pyridoxine at the other extreme they may present in the ninth decade of life with anemia fully responsive to pyridoxine.

Fetal Origins Hypothesis

In other words, fetal malnutrition may permanently change or program the body (fetal programming). For example, the critical period for muscle growth is around 30 weeks of gestation and little cell replication occurs after birth.189 Babies who are thin at birth have thin muscles and this deficiency will persist. If these babies develop rapidly after birth, the development is often due to deposit of fat a known cardiovascular and metabolic risk factor in adult life. Similarly, impaired liver development in utero may permanently impair liver function in later life, leading to high concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and fibrinogen.190

Ionizing Radiation Roy E Albert MD

The basic NCRP occupational whole body radiation standard is 1 rem year (0.01 Sv year). Occupational radiation exposure is not permitted under the age of 18, except for training purposes when the limit is that for the general population described later. The maximum occupational exposure in any one year, as an effective dose, is 5 rem (0.05 Sv). Extra exposure is allowed for limited areas of the skin (50 rem year) and 15 rem year for the lens of the eye. Emergency occupational limits up to 50 rem year are allowed but with subsequent restrictions on exposure. Occupational exposure of the fetus after pregnancy is declared should be no more than 50 millirem month (0.0005 Sv month).

NB and Adrenal Medullary Development

During development of human adrenal medullary chromaffin tissue, cells express TH, chromogranin A (CgA), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) within the first 10 weeks of gestation (Cooper et al. 1990). By 26 weeks of gestation, cells co-express delta (a ligand for the notch receptor) but lose NPY expression until after birth when they express p2-microglobulin, the light chain receptor of the major histocompatibility complex, and re-express NPY. A second population of fetal ganglionic neuroblasts develops in the medullary region that expresses HNK-1 but not TH, CgA, or delta (Cooper et al. 1990). The NB cell lines also express these patterns of gene expression indicating that some NB tumors may arise from tumori-genic events occurring at different stages of adrenal medullary cell development (Cooper et al. 1990). Furthermore, NB tumor tissue express patterns of chro-maffin-related genes that correlate with the patterns of gene expression observed during maturation of adrenal medullary chromaffin...

Incontinentia Pigmenti

Incontinentia pigmenti is an X-linked domi-nantly inherited disorder usually lethal in males, affecting skin, bones, teeth, the central nervous system and eyes. The characteristic skin lesion begins soon after birth, with a linear eruption of bullae, which resolve to leave a linear pattern of hyperpigmentation. Ocular features are usually apparent within the 1st year of life can occur in up to 77 18 . The main abnormalities are peripheral vascular abnormalities and retinal pigment epithelial defects. Macular vasculopathy with progressive capillary closure has also been described 13 . The affected eye is often microphthalmic and complications can arise from late tractional retinal detachment in up to half of those with eye involvement 18 . Prophylactic cryotherapy or

Inclusion Conjunctivitis

The conjunctival involvement of the sexually transmitted chlamydial infection is mild and can even be asymptomatic. In adults, it presents as a subacute follicular conjunctivitis. It is accompanied by a chronic urethritis in the male and a symptomless cervicitis in the female. In newborns, it occurs with an acute mucopurulent discharge, 5 to 10 days after birth. It is accompanied by infection of the maternal vagina by the same agent. Because the extranodal lymphoid tissues are not fully developed, the conjunctivitis is more papillary than follicular. Like trachoma it can be diagnosed by Giemsa staining on conjunctival scrapings.

Neurotoxicity Studies in Animals

Several histopathological studies have shown a variety of adverse effects, including reductions or delays in the development of the hippocampus or other hippocampal changes 132 , reductions or delays in the development of the cerebral cortex 133 , reductions in the number and size of axons in the optic nerve of mice 134 , and demyelination of peripheral nerves 135 . Cytoarchi-tectural changes have also been noted in limited studies of the eyes of monkeys chronically exposed to lead beginning at or shortly after birth 136 .

The Central Theoretical Problem on the Functional Level of Description

Of course, one might think that the elementary body percept is consolidated in social interactions only after birth, or during earlier motor behavior in the womb.19 On the other hand, a persistent functional link between regions of primary somatosensory cortex and certain regions in the bodily self-model is proved by direct electrical stimulation during neurosurgical operations under local anesthesia (see Melzack et al. 1997 ). Of course, sensory body and motor maps are highly plastic and subject to the influence of experience even in the adult organism. And, of course, one has to see that there is probably no such thing as absolute invariance or functional rigidity. But there is good evidence for some kind of innate body prototype, as can, for instance, be seen from the phantom sensations reported by some phocomelic children, who are born without one or more limbs. It seems that these data show that even people born without limbs develop complex bodily self-models which sometimes...

Multiple O2aopc Populations With Different Properties

One of the striking aspects of CNS development is that different regions of this tissue develop according to different schedules, with great variations seen in the timing of both neurogenesis and gliogenesis. For example, neuron production in the rat spinal cord is largely complete by the time of birth, is still ongoing in the rat cerebellum for at least several days after birth, and continues in the olfactory system and in some regions of the hippocampus of multiple species throughout life. Similarly, myelination has long been known to progress in a rostral-caudal direction, beginning in the spinal cord significantly earlier than in the brain (e.g., refs. 127-129). Even within a single CNS region, myelination is not synchronous. In the rat optic nerve, for example, myelino-genesis occurs with a retinal-to-chiasmal gradient, with regions of the nerve nearest the retina becoming myelinated first (127,130). The cortex itself shows the widest range of timing for myelination, both...

Sarcomeric Myosin Isoforms Determine The Functional Properties Of Atrial And Ventricular Myocardium

During prenatal development of mammalian heart, MyHC-beta is the principal isoform expressed in the ventricles (Chizzonite and Zak, 1984 Chizzonite and Zak, 1984 Lompre et al., 1984), whereas MyHC-alpha is the principal isoform expressed in the atria (Lompre et al., 1981). However, in rodents, shortly after birth, MyHC-beta expression decreases and is replaced by MyHC-alpha to the point that at the age of three weeks, MyHC-alpha is virtually the only isoform expressed in the ventricles. This isoform replacement is attributed to an increase in plasma levels of thyroid hormone (T3) and can be delayed if the animals are made hypothyroid (Morkin, 2000). Further maturation of rodent heart is associated to a re-expression of MyHC-beta, which accounts for 15-20 of the total MHC in adult rat and even more in aged animals. Such an increase in MyHC-beta is generally attributed to the increase in wall mechanical stress as the ventricles enlarge during maturation to adulthood (Swynghedauw, 1999)....

Malnutrition syndromes of childhood

Development of immune tolerance towards food and environmental antigens is a central requirement for gut homeostasis. The neonate encounters food, environmental antigens and microbes after birth. A functional relationship between the composition of normal commensal microflora and presence or absence of allergies and atopic disease in children has been recently shown by several groups. These findings include a report of reduced colonization with lactobacilli and higher counts of aerobic bacteria in a large study of allergic children 108 and the demonstration that characteristic differences in neonatal gut flora precede development of allergic responses 109 . A Th2-skewed immune response prevails systemically in the neonate, and contact with microbial antigens acts to repolarize this orientation gradually during the first months of life 110 . Studies strongly suggest that absence of exposure to appropriate microbial signals and lack of a Th2 to Th1 switch is associated with allergic...

Impact of health and nutrition on school readiness

Quality evidence of the relationship between nutrition and cognitive development comes from intervention trials that fall into two categories preventative and therapeutic. We look here at these in turn. In many countries steps have been taken to prevent malnutrition in children by beginning nutritional supplementation in pregnancy and continuing in infancy. This approach has been successful in improving cognitive development. In Guatemala, such a supplementation program found small improvements in cognitive function for children between 3 and 7 years 8 . Supplementation in Mexico from shortly after birth and throughout the first 3 years was found to improve children's school performance and language skills 9 . In addition, from 8 months of age, supplemented children became increasingly active and by 2 years of age were showing eight times more activity than non-supplemented children. A similar program with high-risk mothers in Bogot , Colombia was successful in improving the mental...

Indications for the immunization of selected risk groups

Studies have demonstrated that decreased seroconversion rates might occur among certain premature infants with low birth weights (i.e., 2000 g) after administration of hepatitis B vaccine at birth. However, by chronological age 1 month, all premature infants, regardless of initial birth weight or gestational age are as likely to respond as adequately as older and larger infants. A premature infant born to HBsAg-positive mothers and mothers with unknown HBsAg-status must receive immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) s 12 h after birth. If these infants weigh 2000 g at birth, the initial vaccine dose should not be counted towards completion of the hepatitis B vaccine series, and three additional doses of hepatitis B vaccine should be administered, beginning when the infant is age 1 month. The optimal timing of the first dose

Essential Fatty Acid Requirements

Although adequate dietary intake of n-3 EFA appears to be critical for central nervous system development, the optimum requirements for n-3 EFA for infants are not known. Human milk provides both C18 3n-3 and C22 6n-3 that are often absent from most infant formulas on the market. Formula-fed infants thus depend on endogenous synthesis of long-chain PUFA. Infant formulas provide nutrition that results in growth rates equal or superior to those of breast milk-fed infants. There is a suggestion, however, that long-chain n-3 PUFA may not be synthesized from their parent EFA at optimal rates for brain development during the first few weeks after birth, particularly in preterm infants. Clandinin et al. ( 137) have indicated that the infant's requirement for neural accumulation of long-chain PUFA can be met by intake of long-chain PUFA alone, without endogenous synthesis. Using the FA composition of red blood cell PL as an index of cerebral membrane composition, infants fed human milk had a...

Forms of cataracts in systemic disease

This deep posterior cortical opacity begins after birth. Galactosemia is a rare cause of early cataract in children lacking an enzyme required to metabolize galactose. The newborn receives ample amounts of galactose in the mother's milk. Due a lack of uridyl transferase, or less frequently galactokinase, galactose cannot be metabolized to glucose, and the body becomes inundated with galactose or with galactose and galactose-1-phosphate. If the disorder is diagnosed promptly and the child is maintained on a galactose-free diet, the opacities of the first few weeks of life will be reversible.

Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous PHPV Definition

With this more frequent variant, a white pupil (leukocoria or amaurotic cat's eye) typically will be discovered shortly after birth. This is caused by the whitish plate of connective tissue posterior to the lens. Depending on the severity, it will be accompanied by more or less severe changes in the lens leading to more or less severely impaired vision. In extreme cases, the lens resembles an opacified membrane (membranous cataract). In rare cases, fatty tissue will develop (lipomatous pseudophakia), and even more rarely cartilage will develop in the lens. Retrolenticular scarring draws the ciliary processes toward the center, and they will be visible in the pupil. Growth of the eye is retarded. This results in microphthalmos unless drainage of the aqueous humor is also impaired, in which case buphthalmos (hydrophthalmos) will be present.

The Evolutionary Neurodevelopmental Perspective

Indeed, parental overvaluation through the stages of neuropsychological development may be seen as a core factor in the development of narcissistic patterns. Feelings of omnipotence begin shortly after birth but do not take hold in a meaningful fashion until the sensorimotor-autonomy stage. Every minor achievement of future narcissists is responded to with such favor as to give them a deluded sense of their own extraordinary self-worth. Extreme confidence in your child need not be a disservice if it is well earned. In the case of the future narcissist, however, a marked disparity exists between the child's actual competence and the impression he or she has of it.

Enzymes Of Neurosteroid Biosynthesis In The Rodent Brain


Steroid sulfatase (STS) activity in the rat brain is associated with the nuclear and cytosolic fractions (69). Purification of the murine enzyme allowed to measure the protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the brain (70). Rat and mouse STS have been cloned (70,71). Expression of STS was investigated in mouse brain during embryogenesis (E) (72). On days E16.5-E18.5, an in situ hybridization signal was found in the thalamus, hippoccampus, cerebellum, and spinal chord, and expression in these regions persisted 9 d after birth. Expression was also observed in the peripheral nervous system.

The Opposite of Oncogenes

Physicians had observed that retinoblastoma sometimes ran in families, but in other cases the cancer developed in children who had no relatives with the disease. Living things that reproduce sexually inherit two copies of each gene, one from the father and one from the mother. In 1971, Alfred G. Knudson, Jr., a professor of medical genetics and pediatrics at the Health Science Center in Houston, Texas, proposed that both copies of some gene, then unknown, were defective in retinoblastoma. Children from families in which the disease was common, he theorized, inherited one faulty copy of the gene and later lost the second copy through random mutation, perhaps when eye cells multiplied rapidly after birth. Children from families in which retinoblastoma had been unknown, on the other hand, inherited two normal genes, but mutations made both genes inactive. If both genes were inactivated in even one cell, that cell would begin multiplying uncontrollably and produce a tumor.

Anatomy and Physiology

Head Capillaries

The heart, a muscular double pump enclosed in a fibrous sac called the pericardium, supplies the force that moves the blood. As shown schematically in figure 28.1, the heart is divided into a right and a left side, separated by a septum, a wall of tissue, through which blood normally does not pass after birth. The right and left sides of the heart are both divided into two chambers, the atrium, which receives blood, and the ventricle, which discharges it. Blood from the right ventricle flows through the lungs and into the atrium on the left side of the heart. From the atrium, the blood passes into the left ventricle and is then pumped through the aorta to the arteries and capillaries that supply the tissues of the body. Blood that exits the capillaries is returned to the right atrium by the veins. The heart valves are situated at the entrance and exit of each ventricle and ensure that the blood flows in only one direction. Although not common, infections of the heart valves, muscle,...

The psychiatry of pregnancy Pregnancy adjustment

The mother 'bonds' or 'affiliates' to the unborn child in a way analogous to the formation of the mother-infant relationship after birth. (2 23) Prepartum bonding is catalysed by quickening and probably by ultrasound examination. The mother begins to have fantasies about the baby, often talking affectionately to it. She may engage the husband and other children in 'playing' with the baby. At the same time she prepares for the birth and motherhood ('nesting behaviour').

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology Carole A Kimmel PhD Judy Buelke Sam

Implantation Embryonic Development

Spermatogonia are dormant until after birth and up to the time of puberty when they begin to increase in number through mitosis and produce primary spermatocytes. These further divide by a process called meiosis to form two haploid (half the chromosome number) secondary spermatocytes, that further divide to form four spermatids. The process by which spermatids are transformed into mature sperm is called spermiogenesis. Mature sperm are released into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule of the testis. This transformation from spermatogonia to mature sperm, called spermatogenesis, lasts for 60 days in rats or 80 days in humans and continues throughout the life of the male, as long as undifferentiated A-type spermatogonia are present (21). Agents that affect spermatogonia are the most devastating because the effects may be permanent, whereas effects on later stages of spermatogenesis are more likely to be transient. For example, agents that affect DNA synthesis and cell division, such as...

Application to Antisocial Histrionic Narcissistic Dependent and Avoidant Personality Disorders

With regard to the Antisocial Personality Disorder, evolutionary psychologists might postulate that natural selection places a lower upper limit on women than it does on men. They base this difference on men and women's differing reproductive strategies. A woman who abandons her child shortly after birth has less chance of passing on her genes than a man who abandons his child shortly after birth. A woman's strategy of promiscuity and child abandonment must not have been successful in the ancestral environment. Nonetheless, an alternative ESS of Antisocial Personality Disorder has persisted in women but only at about one-third the prevalence rate for men.

Genetics Of Sensation Seeking

There is always some doubt as to whether the comparison between identical and fraternal twins really controls for shared environment since parents do tend to treat identical twins more similarly than they do fraternal twins. The adopted twin method is a more stringent control because all twins are separated soon after birth and adopted into different families.

Prevention of Inflammatory eye disease in the newborn Information from the Maternity Clinic Leipzig by Crede [22

Most obstetricians would probably share my view that the case of vaginal catarrh and infections that are so frequently encountered are attributable to gonorrheal infection and that the discharge remain infectious long after the specific symptoms of gonorrhea have disappeared moreover, in some cases where there is virtually no further trace of discharge, the infection may still be considered to have occurred in the mother's vagina when an inflammatory eye condition develops in the first few days after birth. I am therefore convinced ( ) that all affected children in ( ) hospital ( ) were infected solely by direct transmission of vaginal discharge to the eye during delivery. The infected eye usually begins to show symptoms of disease 2 or 3 days after birth, but also sooner or later - the sooner, the more serious the condition. In October 1879, I carried out my first test involving the introduction of prophylactic eye drops into the newborn babies immediately after birth, using a borax...

Distribution in the Brain

Nonsteroidal factors released by neurons, or by glial elements, may also modulate the expression of the P450aro, possibly in conjunction with androgens. In this context, it is interesting to recall that, in the brain, the P450aro can be modulated by factors causing either an increase of the formation of cAMP (31), or the activation of the protein kinase C pathway (73). Aromatization appears to be inhibited by 8-Br-cAMP or by P-receptor stimulation (known to be functionally coupled with the formation of cAMP 31,76 ), suggesting that the increase of the noradrenergic activity observed in the perinatal period may induce the suppression of the P450aro occurring in the preoptic hypothalamic area immediately after birth. This hypothesis, however, deserves further investigation, because cAMP has also been shown to enhance (77), or not to modify (73) the neonatal brain P450aro.

Roles of PDGFs in the Microvasculature Revealed by Genetic Studies

PDGF-B and PDGFRP null mice both die at late gestation from microcirculatory deficiency involving generalized microvascular hemorrhage and edema 4, 5 . Closer analysis revealed that these mice fail to recruit pericytes to their microvasculature in many but not all organs 6, 7 . The acute cause of death of the PDGF-B and PDGFRP null mice is likely circulatory failure. Live born mutants die from respiratory distress within minutes to hours after birth.

Embryological Development

Superior Mesenteric Artery Development

The functional development of the pancreas into an exocrine and endocrine gland occurs much later. Secretory acini first appear at the ends of ducts in the third gestational month. Trypsin is formed at about 22 weeks, but full exocrine function is not achieved until six months after birth 8 . Primary islet cells, which probably originate from the neural crest (as do other cells of the APUD system) appear in the 8th week, but are gradually replaced by secondary islets from the third gestational month onwards. Insulin may be detected from the end of the third month, but full endocrine function is not established until after birth.

Epidemiology and transmission

Cytomegalovirus Epidemiology

Pneumocystis carinii is ubiquitous and apparently encountered by the population in many geographical areas without disease manifestation (Pifer et al. 1978 Smulian et al. 1993). Most humans appear to be exposed to Pneumocystis within 2 years after birth (Hong 1991). An increased rate of seropositivity is

Postsynaptic Dysfunction

Striatal MSNs have high levels of NR2B subunit-containing NMDARs55, and NMDAR-mediated whole cell currents in cell lines transfected with NR1 NR2B are specifically increased by the presence of mhtt56. As one might predict from the study of Chen and colleagues (1999), MSNs in acute slices prepared from R6 2 and CAG knock-in mice exhibit enhanced responsiveness to NMDA application prior to the onset of overt symptoms43,46, as do a population of MSNs in slices from adult YAC72 and HD100 transgenic mice43,57. In cultured striatal MSNs, prepared from YAC mice soon after birth, NMDA-induced whole cell current density and apoptotic cell death are enhanced in a polyQ length-dependent manner52,58,59. Also, NMDAR EPSCs are specifically enhanced, whereas AMPA receptor currents are not, at cortico-striatal synapses in slices prepared from 1-month-old YAC72 mice, long before onset of phenotype40. The NMDAR activity underlying increased current density, excitotoxicity, and EPSCs is largely mediated...

General Aspects of Ovarian Function

Cyclus Van Een Koe

The ovary contains all of the female gametes, or oocytes. Mitosis of gametes is completed in females either during fetal life or shortly after birth that is, there are no more gametogenic stem cells (oogonia), and the final pool of primordial oocytes is therefore present. These primordial oocytes are arrested at the diplotene, sometimes also called the dictyate, stage of the first meiotic prophase. The oocytes

Sources Of Melatonin During Development

Maternal melatonin also reaches the developing animal after birth. Transfer of melatonin from mother to offspring in milk has been demonstrated (50), and rhyth-micity of serum melatonin levels in suckling rats appears due to transfer of maternal melatonin via the milk (69).

Peter D Currie Thomas F Schilling and Philip W Ingham 1 Introduction

Generation Flowchart

Researchers eager to see a similar mutagenic approach applied to the vertebrate genome have been stymied by the genetic intractability of classical vertebrate developmental models. The mouse is the only vertebrate organism in which large-scale screens for mutations have been performed. These screens have, in the main, been limited to identification of defects in visible morphological traits after birth, since screening for embryonic mutant phenotypes is difficult because development occurs in utero (2). Biologists interested in using a mutagenic approach to study early aspects of vertebrate development have been forced to search for an alternative.

Microvascular Integrins and Their Extracellular Matrix Ligands

One could argue that, in mice lacking p3 and or p5 gene expression, other av-associated integrins are compensating for normal avp3 and or avp5 functions. As mentioned earlier, av can indeed pair with five different p subunits. However, mice null for the av gene, and thus lacking the expression of all five av integrins, do not display general vascular defects. Approximately 70 percent of av-nulls survive to Ei0.0, having developed a normal vasculature, but die by Ei0.5 because of placental defects. The remaining av-null embryos that survive the mid-gestation crisis subsequently develop to term with a largely normal vasculature. However, they do develop cerebral hemorrhage and a cleft palate, and they die shortly after birth. The hemorrhage is not due to endothelial or pericyte defects, but rather involves defective associations between cerebral vessels and central nervous system glia 6 . Interestingly, the cerebral hemorrhage in the av-nulls is specifically due to the loss of inte-grin...

Diversification Of Mammals

Dinosaurs dominated most terrestrial habitats while populations of small mammals continued to evolve. By the middle of the Cretaceous period, about 100 million years ago, three different kinds of mammals had appeared. Modern mammals belong to one of these three groups. The first group is made up of monotremes. They are oviparous, meaning that they lay eggs. The second group is made up of marsupials. They are viviparous, which means that they give birth to live young. In marsupials, the young develop within a pouch on the mother's body for some time after birth. The third group is made up of placental mammals. They are also viviparous, but in this group, the fetus typically develops within the mother's reproductive system for a longer time than it does in marsupials. Also, in this group, the developing fetus receives nourishment through a blood-rich structure called the placenta.

The Roles Of Sf1 In Vivo Knockout Mouse Studies

To define the roles of SF-1 in vivo, targeted gene disruption in embryonic stem cells was used to generate SF-1 knockout mice. Three groups independently produced SF-1 knockout mice, with generally congruent results. SF-1 knockout mice had female external genitalia irrespective of genetic sex, and died shortly after birth from adrenocortical insufficiency (23,24), supporting an essential role for SF-1 in androgen and corticosteroid biosynthesis. Surprisingly (Fig. 2), their adrenal glands and gonads were completely absent, revealing obligatory roles for SF-1 in the development of the primary steroidogenic tissues. Developmental studies showed that the earliest stages of adrenal and gonadal development still occurred in the absence of SF-1 subsequently, these structures manifested features characteristic of programmed cell death, and degenerated.

Patterns of Inheritance

In autosomal recessive inheritance, an affected individual has two nonfunctional or mutant alleles at a particular locus. One of these is inherited from each of the parents, who are called carriers and who are unaffected by the condition. There is a 1 in 4 (25 ) chance of having an affected offspring with each pregnancy of a known carrier couple, and a 2 in 4 (50 ) chance that an offspring will be a carrier like the parents. After birth, if a child of a carrier couple is not affected by the condition in question, he or she has a 2 in 3 chance of being a carrier. Risk to future offspring of a known carrier depends on the likelihood that his or her partner is also a carrier. This is influenced by the frequency of the disease gene in the population, which may vary among different populations. Features of autosomal recessive inheritance are listed in Table 4-2, and a pedigree is shown in Figure 4-6.

Clinical Features of Hemangioma

What Hemangioma The Fall

Hemangiomas typically appear soon after birth, grow rapidly during the first year of life (proliferating phase), regress slowly from age 1 to 7 (involutingphase), and there after become a fibrofatty residuum (involuted phase). Hence, the life cycle of hemangioma encompasses both proliferation and regression of blood vessels and, as such, presents a unique model system to study the regulation of angiogenesis. The most common form of hemangioma appears within two weeks after birth, yet some appear fully grown at birth. These congenital hemangiomas fall into two subgroups one group regresses rapidly, within months, whereas the second group fails to involute, suggesting that the life cycle of hemangioma can be compressed or extended. Understanding these variations on the more common form of infantile hemangioma will be fundamental to deciphering the mechanisms that control involution and may eventually pave the way for development of fast-acting therapies that either speed up the...

Cervical Bronchogenic Cyst

They are usually discovered at or soon after birth and appear as asymptomatic nodules that slowly increase in size or as draining sinuses exuding a mucoid material. They are more common in males, in some series by a margin of 3 1 31 . The cysts range from 0.3 to 6 cm in size. They are lined by ciliated, pseudostrati-fied columnar epithelium (Fig. 9.9). If the cyst is infect

Vascular Connexin Expression

In one study, endothelial cell-cell coupling was maintained in Cx40-deficient mice by compensatory upregulation of endothelial Cx37, but not Cx43 5 . However, Cx37 deficiency had little effect on Cx40 or Cx43 expression or on cell coupling. Although Cx37 or Cx40 deficiency alone has little effect on vessel morphology, mice doubly deficient in Cx37 and Cx40 die soon after birth and show abnormally dilated blood vessels, particularly in skin and testis 6 . Vessels in Cx37 - - Cx40 - - mice also have permeability defects and localized hemorrhages, suggesting a role for endothelial gap junctions in regulating vessel barrier function. Cx43 deficiency does not affect global vascular development, although coronary artery development is partially defective 7 . Although Cx45 expression in the vascular bed is limited, it plays a critical, yet undetermined, role in vessel development during embryogenesis since Cx45-deficient mice have defective vascular branching and do not develop smooth muscle...

Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis

This hypothesis has been invoked to explain why people with similar intrauterine exposures to malnutrition behave differently later, depending on the degree of catch-up growth after birth. Animal studies show that this compensatory growth shortens survival.195 The consequent rapid rates of cell division may lead to changes in genetic material and earlier cell death.196 Rapid childhood weight gain also has been shown to increase the risk of disease associated with small body size at birth and during infancy.

Somatic Cell Cloning Efforts in the Monkey

Embryo Chimpanzee

Reprogramming required after SCNT is more extensive than the process that occurs during embryonic cell NT. For normal full term development of cloned embryos, genes normally expressed during embryogenesis, but silent in the somatic donor nucleus, must be reactivated in an appropriate temporal and spatial manner. Despite the fact that even terminally differentiated donor cell nuclei can be reprogrammed in egg cytoplasm acquiring the capacity to support full-term development, only a few NT embryos develop to term and, of those, many die shortly after birth in all species where cloning has been successful. The most likely explanation for such outcome is the inability of the cytoplast to reprogram the epigenetic profile of the somatic donor nucleus to that of the fertilized zygote. Our current research on somatic cell cloning in the monkey is focused on the effect of various cell types (younger fetal fibroblasts, cumulus, oviductal epithelial, embryonic stem cells) on NT development in...

Neonatal and perinatal mortality

Although being newborn is not a disease, large numbers of children die soon after birth many of them in the first four weeks of life (neonatal deaths), and most of those during the first week (early neonatal deaths). For every baby who dies in the first week after birth, another is born dead (fetal deaths or stillbirths). Causes and determinants of neonatal deaths and stillbirths differ from those causing and contributing to postneonatal and child deaths. Neonatal deaths and stillbirths stem from poor maternal health, inadequate care during pregnancy, inappropriate management of complications during pregnancy and delivery, poor hygiene during delivery and the first critical hours after birth, and lack of newborn care. Several factors such as women's status in society, their nutritional status at the time of conception, early childbearing, too many closely spaced pregnancies and harmful practices, such as inadequate cord care, letting the baby stay wet and cold, discarding colostrum...

Seeger Mycn Neuroblastoma 1985

It is well known that some subsets of neuroblastoma can regress spontaneously. One of the most important hints to understand the mechanism of spontaneous regression is age of the patient at the onset of neuroblastoma. Regression rarely occurs when the tumor is found in patients over 1 year of age. The dramatic regression of the stage 4s tumor after its rapid growth usually occurs within 6 months after birth therefore, it is plausible that epigenetic regulations, timed with the development of sympathetic neurons, might also control neuroblastoma regression. It is well known that massive death of sympathetic neurons is induced during the perinatal period - a process called developmentally regulated neuronal programmed cell death following deprivation of tar

Eye Manifestations

Pigmented Operculated Retinal Hole

The retinal disease is a chorioretinitis, resulting in a chorioretinal scar similar to that of toxoplasmosis. Dobbins reported 15 of patients showed retinal disease, and a later study by Coats had 22 of symptomatic patients with retinal disease (7 macular and 14 peripheral scars) 16, 24 . The retinitis usually develops in patients with clinically apparent cytomegalic inclusion disease, but has been reported as the only manifestation of congenital CMV infection. (Fig. 13.4) 66 . In addition, it has been reported that retinal disease developed several weeks after birth 56 . The histopathology has been reported as many inclusion bodies in the retina and a few in the choroid, accompanied by extensive chorioretinitis. Accumulation of inclusion bodies in the retina results in focal destruction and gave rise to the development of pseudocolobomas 51 .

Reproductive Behavior

Wahle Unter Wasser

Parental investment is the time and energy an individual must spend to produce and nurture offspring. The benefit of parental care is that it increases the likelihood that young will survive to adulthood. The costs are that parental care can generally only be provided for a small number of young because of the large energy investment by the parent. Usually, females invest more in parental care than males do. In mammals like the whales in Figure 44-9, the female carries the young within her body during development, and after birth the young must nurse. In some species, the male provides the majority of parental investment. Male seahorses, for example, carry the eggs until they hatch.

Examination Trunk

T10 - at umbilicus T12 - at inguinal ligament. Abdominal reflexes T7 - T12 roots. Stroke or lightly scratch the skin towards the umbilicus in each quadrant in turn. Look for abdominal muscle contraction and note if absent or impaired. (N.B. Reflexes may be absent in obesity, after pregnancy, or after abdominal operations.)

Future Directions

Despite considerable efforts, the precise mechanism of iNKT cell-mediated protection of NOD mice from T1D is still not completely understood. Studies to date indicate that polarization of an immune response toward a Th2-like pheno-type may be involved and be accompanied by the a-GalCer-induced recruitment of tolerogenic DCs to the PLN. While previous studies identified an iNKT cell deficiency in NOD mice as early as 3 weeks after birth, our more recent findings indicate that this deficiency may occur during fetal development and be present at birth. Precursors common to conventional T cells and iNKT cells, e.g., CD44low