Prospects for Use of Pharmacogenomics in the Pharmaceutical Industry

There is ambivalence in the pharmaceutical industry about the likely impacts of pharmacogenomics. The possibility of developing new drugs much better targeted to well-characterized subpopulations of patients should increase the therapeutic margin (ratio of dose for toxicity to dose for efficacy) and, therefore, the benefit-to-risk ratio (which is weighted for the proportion of those treated experiencing benefit or toxicity) (Roses, 2000). If the therapeutic margin is sufficiently improved,...

Frequency of Genetic Variants That Might Explain ADRs

Rare variants (frequency of less than 1 ) cannot account for a high proportion of frequently occurring ADRs, but they may play an important role in unusual ADRs, such as prolonged apnea, which occurred in fewer than 1 of patients receiving succinylcholine (Evans, 1963), or myelosuppression in about 0.3 of Caucasians receiving mercaptopurines (Weinshilboum, 2001). Polymorphic variants may account for ADRs to seldom-used drugs but will have little effect on the magnitude of ADRs. On the other...

Commercial Arrangements and Development

Pharmacogenomics may be thought of as a cutting edge discovery and development tool used to optimize pharmaceutical drug innovation by personalizing medicine through genetic profiling and identification of appropriate disease subpopulations. The measured success of pharmacogenomics depends on the success of commercial relationships between various pharmacogenomics entities and pharmaceutical companies with whom they collaborate in improving the quality of therapeutic products. Licensing of...

References

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (2002a) Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP)-II, www.ahrq.gov research trip2fac.htm (accessed May 24, 2002). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (2002b) AHRQ Fiscal Year 2003 Budget in Brief, www.ahrq.gov about cj2003 budbrf03.htm (accessed May 24, 2002). Ausness, R.C., Will More Aggressive Marketing Practices Lead to Greater Tort Liability for Prescription Drug Manufacturers , Wake Forest L. Rev., 37, 97-139 (2002). Bohrer,...

Race and Pharmacogenomic Variation

Incorporation of pharmacogenomic testing and prescription into medical practice, however, may also require that attention be given to race and ethnicity. Investigation of the pharmacogenomic basis of drug safety and efficacy has uncovered some differences in drug response profiles correlated with race and ethnicity, just as there are variations in genes that increase risks to health (e.g., sickle-cell anemia, colon cancer) correlated with race and ethnicity (Weber et al., 1999 Graves, 2001)....

Willingness to Participate in Genetic Research

One assumption frequently made by researchers and policy makers about individuals' willingness to participate in genetic research as well as other forms of medical research is that as the research involves greater disclosure of personal health information, individuals will be less likely to participate. Prior research supports this assumption National Health Council, 2000, p. 18 . We asked the following four questions Questions 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D related to this issue A. How likely would you be to...