Aerobic Fitness Product

Aerobics For Fitness

Aerobics For Fitness

Getting in shape and staying fit is not always easy but some ways are easier than others such as aerobics when you do it right. Aerobics For Fitness Provides You With Everything You Need to Know to Make Aerobics Work Right And Produce Real Fitness Results.

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Body Groove Workout

BodyGroove gives you original workouts and routines to help exercise your body the natural way; the way that it is meant to be used. Everyone's body is one of a kind, and this workout helps you to find the best sweet spot for your body to be used. This DVD program uses music in combination with powerful dance moves to move your body in an amazing and refreshing way. Think of this as the dance equivalence to organic food; healthy and all-natural! You never have to be bored with your workout again with this program. Why stick to routines that don't work? We have a much better solution for you! From high-energy grooves to slower moves, you are set to work out in the way that you like best! You can choose from your favorite style of dancing music; everything from hip-hop to disco is represented!

Body Groove Workout Summary


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Other hormonal responses during aerobic exercise

The sympathetic nervous system and adrenaline also bring about the mobilisation of stored fuels (discussed in detail below). Other hormones respond to aerobic exercise, and are involved in the regulation of fuel availability. Both growth Fig. 8.12 Plasma concentrations of growth hormone (top panel) and cortisol (lower panel) during aerobic exercise at about 60 of maximal aerobic power. The exercise, on a bicycle, began with a 'warm-up' (shown as 0-10 minutes) and then carried on for 60 minutes (until 70 min on the X-axis). Based on Hodgetts, V., Coppack, S.W., Frayn, K.N. & Hockaday, T.D.R. (1991) Factors controlling fat mobilization from human subcutaneous adipose tissue during exercise. JAppl Physiol 71 445-451. With permission of the American Physiological Society. Fig. 8.12 Plasma concentrations of growth hormone (top panel) and cortisol (lower panel) during aerobic exercise at about 60 of maximal aerobic power. The exercise, on a bicycle, began with a 'warm-up' (shown as 0-10...

Metabolic regulation during aerobic exercise

Metabolic Changes During Exercise

In Section 8.4.1, anaerobic and aerobic exercise were described as the two ex- treme forms of exercise. Many forms of exercise consist of a combination of the two. Games such as tennis and soccer require moments of intense power output (serving, kicking), accompanied by endurance performance (running about the court or pitch for 90 minutes or more). In running events, the 100 m sprint is virtually completely anaerobic it is said that the elite sprinter has no need to draw breath during it. (Most of us would doubtless need several breaths ) The 400 m run is a combination of both anaerobic and aerobic exercise, and with increasing distance, the aerobic component becomes more dominant. The marathon run (42.2 km, 26.2 miles) is often taken as an example of almost pure aerobic exercise. The characteristic of aerobic exercise is that it can be sustained for long periods. Of necessity, this means that stored fuels other than those in the muscles must be used, and must be completely oxidised...

Nervous system and cardiovascular responses during aerobic exercise

Two components of the nervous system are intimately involved with metabolic regulation during aerobic exercise. The somatic nervous system carries the stimuli for contraction of the appropriate muscles, and the arrival of a nervous impulse at the end-plate triggers both contraction and a coordinated activation of glycogen breakdown (Fig. 8.8). This is true just as much during aerobic exercise, and there appears to be 'obligatory' breakdown of muscle glycogen associated with muscle contraction, even if there are plentiful substrates in the blood (e.g. if the athlete has eaten well beforehand).

Aerobiccardiorespiratory Exercise

Aerobic exercise consists of rhythmic, large-muscle movements at moderate to high intensity. Activities such as walking, bicycling, swimming, cross country skiing, and stair stepping are considered aerobic exercise. Regular aerobic exercise reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, high blood pressure, excess body fat, resting heart rate, and lung function. In addition, aerobic exercise has been positively correlated with improvements in emotion and mood. These are good guidelines to keep in mind when beginning an exercise program however, sometimes they are merely guidelines. Multiple sclerosis can add some different challenges when recommending aerobic exercise. For instance, some people with MS demonstrate blunted heart rate responses to exercise a condition in which the heart rate does not increase with exercise intensi-ty and may find it hard to achieve the tar- Starting an aerobic exercise program takes commitment It is important to set realistic goals and utilize your...

Increasing Your Running Workout

Twenty to 30 miles per week is a good training distance for an intermediate runner (Table 6-3). As a rule, your risk of injury sharply increases as your running mileage increases. So, if running for fitness rather than competition, keep your weekly mileage below 30 miles. Beyond this, your injury risks far outweigh any additional fitness benefits. Cross-train to work on aerobic fitness without running more than 30 miles.

Carbohydrate metabolism during endurance exercise

Oxidation of glucose provides a major source of energy for the working muscles during aerobic exercise. During aerobic exercise at a high rate (e.g. 80-90 of maximal oxygen consumption, typical of an elite marathon runner) the rate of energy expenditure is around 80 -90 kJ per minute. The proportion of this supplied by glucose oxidation varies according to the preceding diet and other factors, but 50 might be a reasonable estimate (i.e. 40-45 kJ min from glucose). Oxidation of 1 g of glucose releases 17 kJ, so that 42.5 17 or about 2.5 g of glucose must be oxidised each minute. The amount of glucose available in the blood and extracellular space is around 12 g (see Section 6.1). Therefore, even if it could all be used without adverse consequences, this could support high-intensity aerobic exercise for only a few minutes. The liver glycogen store is around 100 g (see Section 8.2.1). Therefore, this could support exercise for less than 1 hour. The total store of

Behaviour modifiers of stress effects

Exercise can affect immunity positively or negatively. Acute aerobic exercise transiently increases NK cell numbers and activity. Overtraining without adequate periods of rest and recovery can diminish NK- and T-cell functions and increase incidence of infectious diseases. Several studies have reported an association between physical inactivity and risk of colon cancer, and animal tumorigenesis experiments tend to show that regular exercise reduces tumour burden. Even moderate exercise in very frail elderly people can reduce both NK- and T-cell functions, quite contrary to the effects of moderate endurance exercise on increasing resistance to infectious disease in normal subjects. Exercise increases lifespan in rats fed ad libitum. The combination of exercise and severe food restriction found in patients with anorexia nervosa leads (as in experimental animals) to morbid immunosuppression.

Beef pork lamb and vealTotal fat grams

The FEP should be geared to meet the deficiency of the member. If the PRT failure was for body fat, a longer duration exercise session would be more beneficial for losing body fat. If the PRT failure was for failing the run, then the member should be running 1.5 miles or longer to build endurance. Many people who are overweight may not be able to run for a 40-minute period of time. Brisk walking (in your target heart rate range) is an aerobic exercise. A 12-minute mile is a good pace, however you should be working towards a 10-minute mile. Believe it or not, many experienced runners have started with a good walking program. Always keep in mind as you progress in your walking program, you should be covering greater distances in the same amount of time. Regardless of whether you are walking or running, the key is level of exertion. You should strive to maintain a target heart rate of 65-80 percent of your maximal heart rate during your entire aerobic exercise session. Navy policy...

Fat metabolism during endurance exercise

The activity of muscle hexokinase is sufficient, in principle, for all the energy for sustained aerobic exercise to be derived from uptake of plasma glucose. In fact, as we have seen, this would reduce the length of time during which the exercise can be sustained at the highest rate. Simultaneous oxidation of glucose and fatty acids therefore produces the longest possible period of sustained high intensity exercise. The availability of fatty acids to the muscles also reduces At higher intensities of exercise, the muscles appear unable to oxidise more fatty acids even if they are available in the plasma. The reason may be this. Glucose metabolism in muscle proceeds at a high rate during intense aerobic exercise. Acetyl-CoA is produced, via the action of pyruvate dehydrogenase, but will primarily be oxidised in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. However, the high concentration may cause some increase in flux through the first part of the pathway of de novo lipogenesis, thus increasing the...

Exercise And Respiration

Patients with PD do not coordinate breathing with locomotion as seen in normal individuals.63 Combining this with fatigability of the respiratory pump during repetitive actions,46 it is not surprising that patient with PD have prominent fatigue and poor exercise tolerance. However, patients are able to improve pulmonary function through a pulmonary rehabilitation program.64 Furthermore, those who engage in regular aerobic exercise may maintain good pulmonary function.65,66 These types of studies suggest that nonpharmacological measures may be as important in addressing pulmonary dysfunction as dopaminergic therapy. Because of limitations due to postural instability and freezing of gait, strategies to maintain aerobic capacity can be more challenging. Multidisciplinary care is often necessary. The PD population is increasingly using alternative medicine approaches. The effect of interventions such as Qigong, yoga, and tai chi on respiratory system are not entirely understood but...

Morale During Deployment

Although confined spaces can limit your training options and make you feel less than enthusiastic to train, you need to remain physically active. Stopping all physical training results in a rapid decline in muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, and aerobic conditioning (see Chapter 4). One option to boost morale and increase participation in physical training during deployment is to help organize and participate in team competitions such as mini-triathlons (perform any three aerobic exercises back-to-back for the best time) and sports days. Finally, you may feel that the biggest barrier to working out when deployed is time limitations. In actuality, it requires less time to maintain fitness levels than to increase fitness levels. Though not ideal, you can maintain your fitness level by working at your usual intensity fewer times per week and for shorter durations than what is required to improve your fitness level. A minimum of one strength session, which includes exercises for...

Disorders of lipid metabolism

Intervention studies have shown that cholesterol reduction using diet, drugs, or surgery reduces the risk of developing or worsening coronary disease. In general, a 1 per cent reduction in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol has been associated with roughly a 2 per cent reduction in disease end-points. (59 General agreement exists that eating less saturated fat and cholesterol, and adopting a diet and exercise habits to reduce obesity will benefit the health of most people. Exercise has a much greater effect in reducing triglyceride levels than in reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Triglyceride levels are reduced after even a single exercise session. The efficacy of regular aerobic exercise in mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridaemia has been repeatedly demonstrated. Diet and exercise programmes for patients with disorders of lipid metabolism are more successful than for patients with obesity, because positive reinforcement is immediate (namely, lower...

Training Design and Progression

Now you are ready to design your aerobic workout When designing a cardiovascular routine there are a few questions you must answer. These are Walking, running, and swimming all provide excellent aerobic workouts. These three types of exercise will be discussed in this chapter for two reasons 1) walking and running are the most common types of exercise that people engage in, and 2) all three modes of exercise can be used to test your level of physical fitness on the Navy PRT tests.

Various Types of Physical Activity

In terms of weight loss, is there a difference between lifestyle activity and a structured PA program In a small study of 40 obese women, Andersen et al. examined the effects of lifestyle activity versus structured aerobic exercise in obese women (mean BMI 32.9). Both groups followed a low-fat diet. The structured PA group participated in supervised aerobic classes. The lifestyle PA group was encouraged to have 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise most days of the week, and to incorporate more physical activity during routines of daily living. Members were given an accelerometer to provide feedback on activity level 28 . The results showed that the mean weight loss between the two groups was similar throughout the study, with a divergence occurring with duration of time (Figure 4.3).

Safety Considerations

Coronary heart disease, as in non-diabetic patients with heart disease, exercise may theoretically precipitate angina, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias or even sudden death. As with other patients with coronary heart disease, physical activity is contraindicated in the presence of unstable angina. High intensity aerobic exercise and isometric exercise are contraindicated in the patient with proliferative retinopathy because of an increased risk of developing retinal or vitreous hemorrhages and retinal detachment. However, moderate intensity aerobic exercise, such as walking, is an acceptable modality of treatment. Patients with peripheral neuropathy should not engage in exercise which may traumatize the insensitive foot (such as jogging). In addition, properly fitted footwear and checking of the feet for injury after exercise are recommended precautions. Data evaluating the potential problem of exercise-induced hypo-glycemia in type-2 diabetes patients taking oral agents or insulin...

Appendix B Sample Workout

Note that the duration of this workout is dependent on the number of exercises that are performed and the length of the aerobic exercise. Perform the number and duration of exercises that are appropriate for your fitness level and adjust the routine as your fitness improves. Note that the duration of this workout is dependent on the number of exercises that are performed and the length of the aerobic exercise. Perform the number and duration of exercises that are appropriate for your fitness level and adjust the routine as your fitness improves.

S Evidence statements

No RCTs or CCTs in patients with MS were identified which assessed interventions to treat weakness. Four RCTs assessed interventions for cardiovascular dysfunction. Two trials examined the efficacy of expiratory muscle training vs sham training in patients who were bedridden or wheelchair bound (EDSS score 6.5-9.5). The first trial reported no overall significant improvement in the intervention group, whilst the second trial showed mixed results. Significant beneficial effects were reported for expiratory muscle strength, but not for inspiratory strength.319,320 The third study examined the effectiveness of an aerobic exercise training program. The results indicated positive effects on four out of eleven of the outcome measures assessed, namely aerobic capacity, physical work capacity, isometric strength and skinfold thickness. No effect however was seen on any of the general health indices measured.321 The last trial assessed the use of music therapy with relaxation and diaphragmatic...

Obesity and Type2 Diabetes

Strength training on a regular basis may also have a beneficial effect on glucose tolerance 8 . However, such training may not improve maximal oxygen consumption. Thus, strength training should probably be considered an adjunct rather than the primary form of training for persons with type-2 diabetes, since aerobics produces both types of benefit.


Brisk walking, heavy housework (scrubbing, spring cleaning), heavy gardening (digging), heavy DIY (sawing, mixing cement), football, tennis, cycling, swimming, aerobics, all at a level to produce some breathlessness and a feeling of warmth, working as a labourer, roofer or refuse collector Sport and exercise at a level to induce sweating and breathlessness, e.g. squash, running, football, rugby, swimming, tennis, aerobics, cycling, gym work, any work or occupation involving frequent climbing, lifting, carrying, e.g. mining, forestry

Available Assays

During periods of fasting or prolonged aerobic exercise when glycogen stores are depleted, fatty acids become a main energy source by P-oxidation in the liver, and skeletal and cardiac muscles. The pathway for fatty acid oxidation occurs in the mitochondria and is complex, involving as many as 20 steps. A number of disorders involving different enzymes in the pathway have been identified. Although the symptoms of the disorders have pheno-typic overlap, there are several biochemical measurements that can aid in the diagnosis of these disorders, including plasma carnitine levels which are usually low, plasma acylcarnitines, and urine acylglycines (for review, see Reference 22). The most common of these disorders by far is medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, which is discussed in detail below.


The management of AS includes patient education, a lifelong exercise program, medications, and occasionally surgery. The patient should be referred for long-term physical therapy. Mobility preservation, muscle strengthening, fitness enhancement, and improvement in the sense of well-being are the main physical therapy goals. Stretching exercises, especially of the hip and knee flexors, are incorporated into the patient's daily routine in an attempt to prevent the development of flexion contractures. Every effort is made to preserve the upright posture and prevent the spine from fusing in kyphosis. General conditioning exercises combined with underwater aerobics may prove beneficial. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in full therapeutic doses should be tried first. Sulfasalazine, an effective and safe medication, can be prescribed at the early stages of the disease. It may be helpful in patients who do not respond to NSAIDs. In patients with severe, progressive disease...

Types of exercise

Aerobic exercise, on the other hand, involves prolonged exercise but at a lower intensity than can be achieved anaerobically. It is typified by long-distance running or swimming, or cross-country skiing. Here, the duration is such that it could not be maintained solely from the fuels stored within muscle the fuel stores in the rest of the body (fat in adipose tissue, glycogen in the liver) must be used. Hence, these substrates must be brought to the muscle in the blood, and there are necessary adjustments to the circulatory system. The muscle fibres involved are predominantly the oxidative, Type I fibres. It is called aerobic, of course, because, to maximise efficiency, substrates (fatty acids and glucose) are completely oxidised.

Nutritional Needs

Do aerobic exercise regularly try to maintain your exercise intensity (see Chapters 4,5,6). Do speed work in addition to aerobic exercise only if you want to maintain performance-related fitness or participate in competitive sports (see Chapters 4,5). Cross-Training - No specific exercise is better than another to offset all the health and fitness changes mentioned. However, many of these concerns can be addressed by cross-training, or altering the types of exercises you perform, throughout the week (see Chapter 5). By cross-training, you can improve and maintain your aerobic fitness while recovering from intense workouts or while taking a break from weight-bearing exercises. This will help prevent overtraining and overuse injuries (see Chapter 13) while you remain physically active. So, consider making cross-training a regular practice in your exercise routine, if it is not already.


Diet and exercise are considered lifestyle modifications which may lower cholesterol levels to goal. Diet changes reduce intake of cholesterol and fat, especially saturated fat. Exercise may involve aerobic exercise for at least 2030 minutes, 3-5 times weekly. Whether a patient is on medication to lower their cholesterol or not, diet and exercise should always be a part of the treatment regimen.

Physical Fitness

Physical fitness includes activities that will improve your strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance. It is divided into the following components cardiorespiratory endurance, which is the ability of your heart and lungs to transport oxygen through your body and is commonly referred to as aerobics-, muscular strength and endurance, which is the ability of your muscles to lift objects such as weights or groceries, and also helps you maintain good sitting posture if you use a wheelchair or better standing balance- flexibility, which is the ability of your muscles and tendons to move your joints through various angles and ranges, and balance, which involves your ability to maintain your center of gravity in a position that does not risk a fall. Depending on your condition, each of these components will require a greater or lesser amount of your attention. For example, someone with poor balance will have to spend more time performing exercises that will help maintain or improve...