a. The Physicians' Desk Reference. The Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) is published on an annual basis by the Medical Economics Company. The drug manufacturers, whose products are listed in the reference, prepare the information contained in the PDR. For the most part, the drug monographs in the PDR come directly from the package inserts for the drugs. The publisher supplies periodic supplements to the text. The PDR is written primarily for physicians; however, many medical personnel have the background to use the reference. The PDR is divided into the following nine areas:
(1) The Manufacturers' Index. This section supplies information (that is, address and telephone number) on the manufacturers who supplied prescribing information for the PDR.
(2) The Product Name Index. This section provides an alphabetical listing of the drug products by trade name and the page number where the drug product information may be located.
(3) The Product Classification Index. This section of the PDR provides an alphabetical listing of the drug products by their therapeutic classifications. Page numbers for locating the drug products are provided for quick reference.
(4) The Generic and Chemical Name Index. In this section, the products are categorized under generic and chemical name headings according to their principal components.
(5) The Product Identification Section. This section of the PDR provides a pictorial display (by manufacturer) of capsules, tablets, and containers. This area can be used to identify products that one does not immediately recognize by appearance.
(6) The Product Information Section. Manufacturer lists this alphabetical arrangement of over 2,500 pharmaceuticals. The drug products are fully described in the following areas: common names, generic compositions, chemical names, composition, action and uses, administration and dosage, contraindications, precautions, side effects, supplied, and other information concerning use.
(7) The Diagnostic Product Information Section. The PDR focuses on the descriptions of diagnostic products. This section of PDR focuses on the descriptions of diagnostic products. The products are listed alphabetically.
(8) The Poison Control Centers Section. This section contains a list of poison control centers and their emergency telephone numbers.
(9) The Guide to Management of Drug Overdose Section. This section is located on the inside back cover of the PDR. The aim of this section is to provide the physician with useful information on the management of drug overdoses. Of course, any individual who is suspected to have ingested an overdose of medication should be taken to the nearest medical treatment facility for prompt attention and treatment.
b. Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. Mack Publishing Company publishes this text. Although written for pharmacists, who work in any pharmacy setting, the reference can be read, understood, and used by other medical/pharmacy personnel. Remington's deals with the theory and practice of the art of pharmacy. It provides essential information about drugs. Furthermore, the text is especially useful as an information source for the compounding of extemporaneous products.
c. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Louis Goodman and Alfred Gilman wrote this text. This reference is written for medical personnel who have a strong background in physiology and pharmacology. Indeed, it is not written for a reader who has a weak or limited background in the sciences. The clinical application of drug knowledge is the aim of the text. The book is divided into major sections based upon therapeutic categories. Sections are subdivided into chapters that focus on specific drug uses. Each chapter has an excellent overview of the therapeutic area and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the topic being examined.
d. American Medical Association Drug Evaluations. The American Medical Association (AMA) Department of Drugs prepares this text. The book is written on a level that can be read and understood by medical personnel who have a good background in physiology and pharmacology. American Medical Association Drug Evaluations is divided into sections based upon therapeutic classifications. Each chapter has an introductory statement that discusses considerations involved with that therapeutic category. Further, each chapter contains informative monographs on drugs pertinent to that category. Dosage information is provided under each drug monograph.
e. Drug Interactions. Philip D. Hansten wrote this text. It is written for the health-care provider who is concerned about drug interactions and/or the effects upon clinical laboratory tests by specific agents. Section one of the book is divided into chapters based upon drug interactions of particular therapeutic categories. Section two deals with the impact of certain medications upon specific clinical laboratory test results.
f. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. W. B. Saunders Company publishes this reference. This medical dictionary is a useful reference for all medical personnel. In particular, the dictionary can be used by pharmacy personnel whenever unfamiliar medical terms are encountered.
g. Handbook of Injectable Drugs. This book was written by Lawrence A. Trissel. It is especially tailored to meet the needs of pharmacy personnel who are directly involved with the preparation of intravenous admixtures. The text is easily used; however, care should be exercised when using the charts provided in the reference. The drugs listed are limited to injectable products. For each drug, a monograph is provided which includes information on drug concentration, stability, pH, dosage, compatibility, and incompatibility.
h. The American Hospital Formulary Service. The American Hospital Formulary Service (AHFS) is a two-volume collection of drug monographs published by the American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists. The AHFS is designed to be used by all pharmacy personnel. It is divided into sections based upon therapeutic categories. A general statement pertaining to the therapeutic category is included at the beginning of each individual section. Individual drug monographs that present information on drug chemistry, dosage, and preparations follow this general statement. Information on the drug monographs is kept current by periodic supplements to the AHFS.
i. The American Drug Index. Norman Billups writes the American Drug Index (ADI). The book is designed to provide information to all medical personnel in general and to pharmacy personnel in particular. The monographs contained in the ADI are listed in alphabetical order. Both trade and generic names are provided. The monographs in the ADI do not provide information on actions and dosage. Instead, specific information (that is, manufacturer, amount of each ingredient present in the dosage form and the use of the drug) is provided for each product listed.
j. Pharmaceutical Calculations. Mitchell J. Stoklosa wrote this reference. It was designed for use as a calculation text. Although it is not a pharmacology text, it is useful to rely on such a reference when questions on dosage calculations arise. Periodic review of calculation concepts is helpful to all pharmacy personnel.
k. Facts and Comparisons. Facts and Comparisons, Inc wrote this reference. It is designed to be used by most medical personnel in general and by pharmacy personnel in particular. Facts and Comparisons are organized into twelve main chapters by drug use. Drugs and/or drug products are listed together in such a way as to provide rapid comparisons between drugs or products that are similar in use or content. Individual drug monographs provide comprehensive information on drug actions, contraindications, warnings and precautions, drug interactions, adverse reactions, over-dosage, and administration and dosage. The publisher provides monthly updates of this loose-leaf text. These updates ensure that the most recent information on new products and developments in drug therapy are available to the reader. Moreover, the publisher has available a slide-tape presentation which provides information on the use of the reference.
l. Handbook of Poisoning: Diagnosis and Treatment. This text was written by Dr. Robert H. Dreisbach and published by Lange Medical Publications. This reference provides a concise summary of the diagnosis and treatment of many poisons. The book is divided into chapters that discuss such topics as general considerations (that is, prevention and management), agricultural poisons, industrial hazards, household hazards, medicinal poisons, and animal and plant hazards. Information on first-aid measures is found on the front and back covers of the text.
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