INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following exercises by marking the lettered response that best answers the question, by completing the incomplete statement, or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the exercise.
After you have completed all of these exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises" at the end of the lesson and check your answers. For each exercise answered incorrectly, reread the material referenced with the solution.
1. From the definitions below, select the definition of the term drug.
a. A substance that is used to cure all diseases.
b. A substance used to prevent, diagnose, or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy.
c. A substance that can only be purchased at a drugstore.
d. A substance that occurs naturally and cannot cause any toxic reactions.
2. From the definitions below, select the definition of the term toxicology.
a. The science of chemicals.
b. The science of drugs.
c. The science of poisons.
d. The science of dosage.
3. Select the drug that is derived from an animal source.
4. Select the statement that best describes a use of drugs.
a. To produce anxiety or tension.
b. To relieve the symptoms of a disease or condition.
c. To cure diabetes.
5. Select the statement that best describes how the physical condition of a patient might influence the amount of drug required to obtain a specific effect.
a. Debilitated patients always require the same amount of drug as a healthy person.
b. The physical condition of a patient never influences the required dose of a drug.
c. The weak patient might require smaller doses of a drug to achieve an effect.
d. Patients in extreme pain usually require smaller doses of analgesic agents rather than patients who are in less pain.
6. Select the statement that best describes drug dependence.
a. Drug dependence occurs whenever a patient takes a particular drug for a long period.
b. Drug dependence is said to occur when the patient has either a physiological or psychological need for a drug.
c. Drug dependence occurs when a patient's body requires a drug, but cannot tolerate its harmful effects.
d. Drug dependence can only occur with certain types of drugs (like narcotics).
7. Select, from the list below, the definition of the term synergism.
a. Synergism occurs when one drug lives off another drug.
b. Synergism occurs when the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the sum of their independent effects.
c. Synergism occurs when the combined effects of two drugs are equal to the sum of the independent effects of the drugs.
d. Synergism occurs when one drug's effects cancel the effects of another drug.
8. Select the route of administration in which the dosage form is placed in the mouth but not swallowed.
9. Select the statement that best describes the sublingual/buccal route of administration.
a. In this route of administration, the drug is swallowed and very quickly absorbed by the patient.
b. In this route of administration, the drugs are absorbed only after being taken into the gastrointestinal tract.
c. In this route of administration, the drug is absorbed without passing through the gastrointestinal tract.
d. In this route of administration, the drug is applied directly to the skin.
10. From the statements below, select the statement that best describes how fat solubility influences drug absorption.
a. Since all body fluids are fat based, a drug must be soluble in fat in order to be absorbed and demonstrate its effect.
b. Since body membranes are lipids in nature, a drug that will pass through lipid material will be absorbed much more quickly than ionized drug particles.
c. The body cannot absorb a fat-soluble drug, because it is unionized.
d. All fat-soluble drugs must be converted into water-soluble substances before they can be absorbed.
11. From the list below, select the definition of the term metabolism.
a. The chemical process of producing a drug.
b. The metabolic process of changing a drug.
c. The process of transforming a living life form.
d. The modification of complex substances to make them powerless.
12. From the list below, select the definition of the term excretion.
a. The process of placing a drug or its metabolites into the body.
b. The process of metabolically changing a drug or its metabolites.
c. The process of eliminating a drug or its metabolites from the body.
d. The process of concentrating a drug and removing it from the patient's gastrointestinal tract.
13. From the descriptions below, select the description that best describes the Receptor-Site Theory of the mechanism of drug action.
a. A drug (the lock) combines with a receptor-site (the key) to produce a pharmacological effect.
b. A drug (the key) combines with a receptor-site (the lock) to produce a pharmacological effect.
c. A drug (the receptor-site) combines with cell components (the lock) to produce a pharmacological effect.
d. A drug (the lock) combines with a receptor-site in the intestine to produce an essential effect.
14. Select the statement that best contrasts passive transport with active transport.
a. Active transport occurs when molecules of the drug move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, while passive transport occurs when a "carrier molecule" carries a drug molecule across a cell membrane.
b. Passive transport occurs in comatose patients whose cells are unable to actively absorb drugs through the normal processes.
c. Passive transport occurs when molecules of a drug move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, while active transport occurs when a "carrier molecule" carries a drug molecule across a cell membrane.
d. Passive transport occurs when a "carrier molecule" carries drug molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration, while passive transport involves the movement of blood plasma from a low concentration to a high concentration.
15. From a group below, select the description that best describes the importance of structure activity relationships.
a. Drugs that are similar in composition and structure may have similar effects.
b. Drugs that are not similar are ineffective.
c. Drugs that are active generally have similar structures.
d. Drugs that are similar in effect generally have the same trade name.
16. Select the statement that best contrasts competitive antagonist with physiological antagonists.
a. Competitive antagonists combine with the receptor-site and prevent another drug from combining with the receptor-site, while physiological antagonists reverse the action of a drug by acting on a different receptor-site to cause different physiological reaction.
b. Competitive antagonists produce pharmacological effects by producing a physiological effect different from the drug, while physiological antagonists physiologically compete for a spot on the receptor-site.
c. Competitive antagonists combine with the receptor-site and remove the drug from the site, while physiological antagonists physically compete for the receptor-site.
d. Physiological antagonists physically remove drug molecules from the receptor-site, while competitive antagonists compete for the receptor-site.
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