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INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following exercises by marking the lettered response that best answers the exercise, by completing the incomplete statement, or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the exercise.

After you have completed all of the exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises" at the end of the lesson and check your answers. For each exercise answered incorrectly, reread the material referenced with the solution.

1. Which statement best describes the mechanism of action of sedative-hypnotics?

a. They inhibit the flow of potassium and sodium ions across the semipermeable membranes of the nerves.

b. They inhibit the depolarization of the nerve fibers and thus produce calm or sleep.

c. They depress the reticular activating system (RAS).

d. They inhibit the transmission of electrical impulses from the brain by interfering with the passage of certain ions through the nerve fibers.

2. Select the effect(s) produced by the sedative-hypnotics.

a. Relief of anxiety.

b. Disinhibition.

c. Analgesia.

d. All the above.

3. Which of the following statements best describes the analgesia produced by sedative-hypnotics?

a. Patients who have been given extremely large doses of barbiturates are unresponsive to pain.

b. Patients who are administered intravenous doses of sedative-hypnotics are unable to feel any painful stimuli.

c. Patients who are given sedative-hypnotics seem to be more tolerant of pain than those patients who are not given these drugs.

d. Patients who are given any amount of sedative-hypnotics are unable to feel pain, but they are also unable to maintain consciousness for long periods.

4. Select the clinical use(s) associated with the sedative-hypnotics.

a. To induce sleep.

b. To treat minimal brain dysfunction (MBD).

c. To treat pain.

d. All the above.

5. Select the adverse effect(s) associated with the use of sedative-hypnotic agents.

a. Drowsiness.

b. Hangover.

c. Impaired judgment.

d. All the above.

6. Select the caution(s) and warning(s) associated with the use of sedative-hypnotics.

a. Caution should be observed when giving these drugs to patients who have impaired liver function.

b. These agents should not be prescribed to those persons who are likely to become dependent upon them.

c. Sedative-hypnotics should be taken on a continuous and regular basis to ensure desired therapeutic effects.

d. All the above.

INSTRUCTIONS: Match the generic name of the drug with its corresponding trade name. (Exercise items 7 through 10.)

7. Pentobarbital _ a. Librium®

9. Chlordiazepoxide_ c. Serax

10. Triazolam d. Halcion®

11. Select the clinical use(s) of diazepam (Valium®).

a. A treatment for minimal brain dysfunction (MBD).

b. An anoretic for the suppression of appetite.

c. A preanesthetic medication used to calm the patient.

d. A drug used for induction of sleep.

a. Antianxiety agent.

b. Sleep inducer.

c. Skeletal muscle constrictor.

d. All the above.

13. What is the most common side effect associated with oxazepam (Serax®)?

a. Ataxia.

b. Lethargy.

c. Drowsiness.

d. Blurred vision.

14. What is the duration of action for ultra-short acting barbiturates?

d. 15 to 30 minutes.

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