(1) Background information. Intermediate-acting nonbarbiturate agents are administered orally to effectively control moderate to severe daytime anxiety and tension in patients who have neuroses and mild depressive states.
(2) Examples of intermediate-acting nonbarbiturates.
(a) Diazepam (Valium®). Diazepam may be useful in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms (for example, delirium tremens, agitation, and so forth.) This agent produces skeletal muscle relaxant effects in humans and has been used with limited success in various neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders. Diazepam may be administered parenterally as a preanesthetic medication to reduce anxiety and to calm the patient. Diazepam is also administered intravenously in the treatment of status epilepticus. It is available in tablet form (2, 5, and 10 milligrams) and in injection form
(5 milligrams per milliliter in 2 and 10 milliliter containers). Diazepam is a Note Q controlled substance in the military.
(b) Meprobamate (Equanil®, Miltown®). Meprobamate can produce skeletal muscle relaxant effects in humans; therefore, it has been used with some success in the treatment of various neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders. It appears to be less effective than diazepam in the treatment of anxiety and tension. The most common side effect associated with the agent is drowsiness. It is supplied in tablet and suspension forms. Meprobamate is a Note Q controlled item in the military.
(c) Other examples of nonbarbiturates used in the treatment of anxiety disorders include Lorazepam (Ativan®), Alprazolam (Xanax®), and Buspirone (Buspar®). Lorazepam is used primarily as an antianxiety agent, but is useful for treating insomnia due to stress and anxiety. Lorazepam is also used as a preanesthetic medication to produce sedation and decrease the patient's ability to recall events related to the day of surgery.
(d) Temazepam (Restoril®). Temazepam is administered in a nightly dose of 15 to 30 mg. It is an effective inducer of sleep with a good safety profile. Animal studies indicate a potential for Temazepam to cause teratogenic effects. Therefore, it should not be administered during pregnancy.
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With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.