A Direct Toxicity

(1) In general terms, toxicity refers to the poison-like effects certain substances can produce in the body. Fortunately, most drugs do not produce toxic effects in most patients. However, when some drugs are administered to a patient over prolonged periods or when some drugs are given in high dosages, direct toxic effects can result. Direct toxicity may involve one or more of the body's systems. Certain parts of the body (that is, bone marrow) produce red and white blood cells. If a toxic...

EHydroxyzine Hydrochloride Atarax or Hydroxyzine Pamoate Vistaril

Hydroxyzine has the following three primary uses (a) Antianxiety agent. The drug is used to treat anxiety, tension, and (b) Antiemetic agent. Because hydroxyzine does have some antiemetic (antinausea and vomiting) properties, it is used in its injectable form (hydroxyzine pamoate) to manage postoperative nausea and vomiting. (c) Antipruritic agent. Hydroxyzine has been used because of its antipruritic (anti-itch) properties. NOTE Atarax is sometimes used as a sedative. (2) Adverse...

Diseases Of The Skin

Diseases of the skin make up a large portion of the physician's practice, whether in civilian life or in the Army. A specialist in diseases of the skin is called a dermatologist. Descriptive terms used in dermatology are (1) Bulla--large blister filled with serous fluid. (2) Excoriation--superficial discontinuity or scratch. (4) Lesion--any localized abnormality. (5) Macula--small, flat discoloration or freckle. (8) Pustule--vesicle containing pus. (9) Squamous--scaly. (10)...

Precautions Associated With The Use Of Antidepressant Agents

Although the antidepressant agents are safe for patient use, there are some precautions associated with their use a. Antidepressants should be used cautiously with patients who are hyperactive or agitated. b. Antidepressants should be used cautiously with the elderly, with patients who have glaucoma, and with patients who have hypertension (high blood pressure). c. Antidepressants may interact with other types of drugs. For example, references should be consulted to determine if any interaction...

Introduction To Antianxiety Agents

It is not unusual for a person to experience stress and anxiety. Most people can deal with the minor stresses of life without using antianxiety agents. However, when the degree of anxiety increases to the point of causing social and or economic impairment, the attending physician may decide to prescribe an antianxiety agent. It should be remembered that the antianxiety agent will calm the patient, but the drug cannot remove the cause of anxiety. Often the antianxiety therapy is combined with...

Classes Of Cerebral Or Psychomotor Central Nervous System Stimulants

The xanthine derivatives have several pharmacological effects. One, they directly relax the smooth muscle of the bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels. By such dilation of the bronchi, more oxygen can be drawn into the lungs. Two, they stimulate the central nervous system and produce diuresis (they increase the production of urine) by direct action on the kidney. There are several examples of xanthine derivatives (1) Caffeine. Caffeine is found in coffee, tea, and in...

Disadvantages Of The Use Of Antianxiety Agents

Although the antianxiety agents do have many advantages over previously used drugs, they are not free from potentially harmful effects. The discussion below focuses on two major disadvantages of the group of drugs classified as antianxiety agents. a. Drowsiness. Antianxiety agents, especially during the first few days of therapy, produce drowsiness in many patients. Further, many patients who take antianxiety drugs experience loss of judgment and a loss of mental powers. Consequently, patients...