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Minor injuries included, for instance, single arm bone fractures; moderate injuries included single leg bone fractures and combined injuries; severe injuries were life-threatening multiple injuries. All injured patients were studied within 12 h of injury. They were in a variety of nutritional states.

The plasma glycerol concentration may be taken as an indication of the rate of lipolysis: it increases consistently with increasing severity of injury. The plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration, on the other hand, is not as high as expected after severe injuries (despite very high catecholamine concentrations) because of constriction of the blood flow through adipose tissue. The same phenomenon occurs during strenuous exercise, although not to such a marked extent.

Sources: Frayn (1982; 1986); Coppack et al. (1990).

Minor injuries included, for instance, single arm bone fractures; moderate injuries included single leg bone fractures and combined injuries; severe injuries were life-threatening multiple injuries. All injured patients were studied within 12 h of injury. They were in a variety of nutritional states.

The plasma glycerol concentration may be taken as an indication of the rate of lipolysis: it increases consistently with increasing severity of injury. The plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration, on the other hand, is not as high as expected after severe injuries (despite very high catecholamine concentrations) because of constriction of the blood flow through adipose tissue. The same phenomenon occurs during strenuous exercise, although not to such a marked extent.

Sources: Frayn (1982; 1986); Coppack et al. (1990).

stimulation are still seen if the adrenal medullas are removed, but not if the sympathetic nerve system is deactivated with the compound guanethidine. The physiological significance perhaps again relates to the need to stimulate glucose utilisation during exercise independently of insulin, whose concentration may be reduced (see next section).

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