Regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism (liver, heart, skeletal muscle)
Lawrence, J.C.J. & Roach, P.J. (1997) New insights into the role and mechanism of glycogen synthase activation by insulin. Diabetes 46: 541-547. Bollen, M., Keppens, S. & Stalmans, W. (1998) Specific features of glycogen metabolism in the liver. Biochem J 336: 19-31.
Depre, C., Rider, M.H. & Hue, L. (1998) Mechanisms of control of heart glycolysis. Eur J Biochem 258: 277-290.
Nordlie, R.C., Foster, J.D. & Lange, A.J. (1999) Regulation of glucose production by the liver. Annu Rev Nutr 19: 379-406.
Okar, D.A. & Lange, A.J. (1999) Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and control of carbohydrate metabolism in eukaryotes. BioFactors 10: 1-14.
El-Maghrabi, M.R., Noto, F., Wu, N. & Manes, N. (2001) 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase: suiting structure to need, in a family of tissue-specific enzymes. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 4: 411-418.
van Schaftingen, E. & Gerin, I. (2002) The glucose-6-phosphatase system. Biochem J 362: 513-532.
Regulation of fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis and oxidation
Smith, S. (1994) The animal fatty acid synthase: one gene, one polypeptide, seven enzymes. Faseb J 8: 1248-1259.
Hellerstein, M.K., Schwarz, J.-M. & Neese, R.A. (1996) Regulation of hepatic de novo lipogenesis in humans. Annu Rev Nutr 16: 523-557.
Kim, K.H. (1997) Regulation of mammalian acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase. Annu Rev Nutr 17: 77-99.
Hegardt, F.G. (1999) Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase: a control enzyme in ketogenesis. Biochem J 338: 569-582.
Ruderman, N.B., Saha, A.K., Vavvas, D. & Witters, L.A. (1999) Malonyl-CoA, fuel sensing, and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol 276: E1-E18.
Zammit, V.A. (1999a) Carnitine acyltransferases: functional significance of subcellular distribution and membrane topology. Prog Lipid Res 38: 199-224.
Zammit, V.A. (1999b) The malonyl-CoA-long-chain acyl-CoA axis in the maintenance of mammalian cell function. Biochem J 343: 505-515.
Coleman, R.A., Lewin, T.M. & Muoio, D. (2000) Physiological and nutritional regulation of enzymes of triacylglycerol synthesis. Annu Rev Nutr 20: 77-103.
Kerner, J. & Hoppel, C. (2000) Fatty acid import into mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta 1486: 1-17.
Regulation of lipid metabolism
Goldberg, I.J. (1996) Lipoprotein lipase and lipolysis: central roles in lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis. J Lipid Res 37: 693-707.
Fielding, B.A. & Frayn, K.N. (1998) Lipoprotein lipase and the disposition of dietary fatty acids. Br J Nutr 80: 495-502.
Holm, C., Osterlund, T., Laurell, H. & Contreras, J.A. (2000) Molecular mechanisms regulating hormone-sensitive lipase and lipolysis. Annu Rev Nutr 20: 365-393.
Vock, R., Weibel, E.R., Hoppeler, H., Ordway, G., Weber, J.-M. & Taylor, C.R. (1996) Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. V. Structural basis of vascular substrate supply to muscle cells. J Exp Biol 199: 1675-1688. The paper by Vock et al. (1996) is one of a series of contiguous papers. They have wonderful electron micrographs of skeletal muscle. They prompt one to think very carefully about issues of substrate and O2 diffusion across tissues.
Gordon, A.M., Homsher, E. & Regnier, M. (2000) Regulation of contraction in striated muscle. Physiol Rev 80: 853-924.
Wyss, M. & Kaddurah-Daouk, R. (2000) Creatine and creatinine metabolism. Physiol Rev 80: 1107-1213.
Gordon, A.M., Regnier, M. & Homsher, E. (2001) Skeletal and cardiac muscle contractile activation: tropomyosin 'rocks and rolls'. News Physiol Sci 16: 49-55.
Ricquier, D. & Bouillaud, F. (2000) The uncoupling protein homologues: UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, StUCP and AtUCP. Biochem J 345: 161-179.
Dulloo, A.G. & Samec, S. (2001) Uncoupling proteins: their roles in adaptive thermogenesis and substrate metabolism reconsidered. Br J Nutr 86: 123-139.
Was this article helpful?
All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.