Further reading

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Regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism (liver, heart, skeletal muscle)

Lawrence, J.C.J. & Roach, P.J. (1997) New insights into the role and mechanism of glycogen synthase activation by insulin. Diabetes 46: 541-547. Bollen, M., Keppens, S. & Stalmans, W. (1998) Specific features of glycogen metabolism in the liver. Biochem J 336: 19-31.

Depre, C., Rider, M.H. & Hue, L. (1998) Mechanisms of control of heart glycolysis. Eur J Biochem 258: 277-290.

Nordlie, R.C., Foster, J.D. & Lange, A.J. (1999) Regulation of glucose production by the liver. Annu Rev Nutr 19: 379-406.

Okar, D.A. & Lange, A.J. (1999) Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and control of carbohydrate metabolism in eukaryotes. BioFactors 10: 1-14.

El-Maghrabi, M.R., Noto, F., Wu, N. & Manes, N. (2001) 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase: suiting structure to need, in a family of tissue-specific enzymes. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 4: 411-418.

van Schaftingen, E. & Gerin, I. (2002) The glucose-6-phosphatase system. Biochem J 362: 513-532.

Regulation of fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis and oxidation

Smith, S. (1994) The animal fatty acid synthase: one gene, one polypeptide, seven enzymes. Faseb J 8: 1248-1259.

Hellerstein, M.K., Schwarz, J.-M. & Neese, R.A. (1996) Regulation of hepatic de novo lipogenesis in humans. Annu Rev Nutr 16: 523-557.

Kim, K.H. (1997) Regulation of mammalian acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase. Annu Rev Nutr 17: 77-99.

Hegardt, F.G. (1999) Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase: a control enzyme in ketogenesis. Biochem J 338: 569-582.

Ruderman, N.B., Saha, A.K., Vavvas, D. & Witters, L.A. (1999) Malonyl-CoA, fuel sensing, and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol 276: E1-E18.

Zammit, V.A. (1999a) Carnitine acyltransferases: functional significance of subcellular distribution and membrane topology. Prog Lipid Res 38: 199-224.

Zammit, V.A. (1999b) The malonyl-CoA-long-chain acyl-CoA axis in the maintenance of mammalian cell function. Biochem J 343: 505-515.

Coleman, R.A., Lewin, T.M. & Muoio, D. (2000) Physiological and nutritional regulation of enzymes of triacylglycerol synthesis. Annu Rev Nutr 20: 77-103.

Kerner, J. & Hoppel, C. (2000) Fatty acid import into mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta 1486: 1-17.

Regulation of lipid metabolism

Goldberg, I.J. (1996) Lipoprotein lipase and lipolysis: central roles in lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis. J Lipid Res 37: 693-707.

Fielding, B.A. & Frayn, K.N. (1998) Lipoprotein lipase and the disposition of dietary fatty acids. Br J Nutr 80: 495-502.

Holm, C., Osterlund, T., Laurell, H. & Contreras, J.A. (2000) Molecular mechanisms regulating hormone-sensitive lipase and lipolysis. Annu Rev Nutr 20: 365-393.

Skeletal muscle metabolism

Vock, R., Weibel, E.R., Hoppeler, H., Ordway, G., Weber, J.-M. & Taylor, C.R. (1996) Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. V. Structural basis of vascular substrate supply to muscle cells. J Exp Biol 199: 1675-1688. The paper by Vock et al. (1996) is one of a series of contiguous papers. They have wonderful electron micrographs of skeletal muscle. They prompt one to think very carefully about issues of substrate and O2 diffusion across tissues.

Gordon, A.M., Homsher, E. & Regnier, M. (2000) Regulation of contraction in striated muscle. Physiol Rev 80: 853-924.

Wyss, M. & Kaddurah-Daouk, R. (2000) Creatine and creatinine metabolism. Physiol Rev 80: 1107-1213.

Gordon, A.M., Regnier, M. & Homsher, E. (2001) Skeletal and cardiac muscle contractile activation: tropomyosin 'rocks and rolls'. News Physiol Sci 16: 49-55.

Uncoupling proteins

Ricquier, D. & Bouillaud, F. (2000) The uncoupling protein homologues: UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, StUCP and AtUCP. Biochem J 345: 161-179.

Dulloo, A.G. & Samec, S. (2001) Uncoupling proteins: their roles in adaptive thermogenesis and substrate metabolism reconsidered. Br J Nutr 86: 123-139.

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