Atp

Halki Diabetes Remedy

Diabetes Cure Diet

Get Instant Access

anaerobic exercise 225, 229-33 generation of lactate 76, 232 marathon running 238 per glucose molecule 234, 251 ATP generation glucose/lactate 76 skeletal muscle 105, 107-10 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins

40, 263 atrophy 179 atropine 200-201

autonomic nervous system 195, 199201, 210-11 hormone secretion 210-11 parasympathetic/sympathetic 195, 199-201

basal metabolic rate 307 basolateral transport 76 bile acids and salts 72, 74-5, 83 biliary system 83 blood blood plasma and serum 24-5 cholesterol elevating conditions

269-75 blood-brain barrier 103 body weight regulation 310-19

metabolic changes 315-16 see also energy balance; obesity brain 197-9 cerebellum and brainstem 199 hypothalamus 198-9 structure/function 102-4 breakfast carbohydrate metabolism 155-9 fat metabolism 164-8 metabolic diary 186-7

calcium channels 196 calcium ions 43 calorimetry 228-9

energy expenditure 306-10 cAMP 42-3

cAMP-dependent protein kinase 44-5, 143

capillaries, and interstitial fluid 22-4

carbohydrate(s) 13-17 structures 14-16 see also specific substances carbohydrate metabolism 151-9, 189-91 and amino acids 184-5 digestion 59-60 endurance exercise 244-6 energy stores 214 and fat metabolism 179-84 glucose, disposal after meal 152, 158-9

glucose-alanine cycle and gluconeogenesis from amino acids 179-84

liver fed conditions 85-7 metabolism post meal 155-7 overnight fasted conditions (postabsorptive state) 87-93, 153-5

pentose phosphate pathway 93 whole body integration 151-9, 189-91 carbohydrate responsive genes ChREBPs 51

control of gene expression 51-2 carboxypeptidases 72 carnitine-palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-

1) 95, 110 catecholamines 141 biosynthesis 144 metabolic effects 207 skeletal muscle 208 cellulose 16, 60 cerebellum and brainstem 199 cGMP 43

chemical concepts 5-13 osmosis 12-13 polarity 5-12 chemoreceptors 205 cholecystokinin 69-70 cholesterol and atherosclerosis, lipoprotein metabolism 268-9 blood concentration 269-75

heart disease 270 cell content regulation 261-3 cholesterol-lowering molecules 79 control of gene expression 54-6 dietary 274

fate and regulation 78-9, 99 forward transport 266

homeostasis 265, 268 reverse transport 263-4 structure 11

synthesis from glucose 98-9 transport 39-41 see also lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering drugs 54 cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)

122, 265-6, 276, 278 cholesteryl esters 253 cholestyramine 265 cholic acid 74 cholinergic fibres 200 cholinergic transmission 202-3 chromaffin cells 141 chronotropic effect 145 chylomicron remnants 259, 273 chylomicrons 75, 77 metabolism 257-60 postabsorptive state 166, 167-9 structure 257 see also lipoprotein lipase chyme 65 chymotrypsin 72 circulation capillaries and interstitial fluid 22-4 effects of adrenergic stimulation 206-7

exercise, distribution of blood flow 242 clofibrate 54 colonic salvage 79-80 competitive inhibition 29 Cori cycle, glucose-lactic acid cycle 184, 221

coronary arteries 110 coronary heart disease 269

and cholesterol concentration 270 HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol 275-9 corticotropin 137 cortisol production from cortisone 122 secretion from adrenal cortex 142-3 cortisol-binding globulin 253 covalent modification 29 creatine kinase reaction 105 CREs 42

Cushing's syndrome 179

dextrins, alpha-limit 71 diabetes insipidus 281

diabetes mellitus 281-99

alterations in metabolism 285-91 type-2 diabetes 290-91 untreated type-1 diabetes 286-90 clinical features 281-5

type-1 and type-2 281-5 complications common pathways 297-8 hexosamine pathway 297 longer term 294-8 macrovascular/microvascular disease and glucose 294-6 non-enzymatic glycation of proteins 296

polyol pathway 296-7 protein kinase C activation 297 diabetic ketoacidosis 290 diagnosis 289

glucose concentrations, microvascular disease 294-6 history 282-3 treatment 292-4

type-1 and type-2 281-2, 283-5, 292-4 diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) 307 diffusion, free/facilitated 32-3 digestion 59-73, 80-81 carbohydrate 59-60 enzymes 65, 69-71 fats 60-61 hormones 69-71 in mouth 61-2 protein and amino acids 61 in small intestine 66-73 stages 61-73 in stomach 62-6 disaccharidases 72 disaccharides 14-15

structure 14 disuse atrophy 179 duodenum 66

electron transport, uncoupling concept

112-15 electronegativity 7-8 emboli, fat embolus 116 end-plate 201 endocrine organs 130-50

see also hormones endothelial cells and other cell types 125-7 endothelium 125-6 macrophages 127

rapidly dividing cells 127 endothelial-derived relaxing factor

(EDRF) see nitric oxide energy, units 226-7 energy balance 300-10 energy expenditure 230, 306-10 components 311 double-labelled water 310 energy intake/output 3 components 307-10 measurement 306-7 regulation 301-6 energy stores 213-16 amino acids 215-16 carbohydrate 214 extreme situations 213-16 fat 214-15

regulation 1-3, 300-301 enteric nervous system 197 enterocytes 73, 127 enterogastric reflex 68 enzymes digestion 65, 69-71 longer-term control 47-9 short-term control 27-8, 41-7 epinephrine 143 erythropoietin 56 esters 9

exercise 225-50 aerobic 233-48

one-legged 245 anaerobic 229-33 endurance exercise 244-6 carbohydrate 244-6 changes occurring 250 fat metabolism 246-8 glucose turnover 246 intensity 226-9 training effects 248-50 types 225-6

see also aerobic exercise; anaerobic exercise extreme situations 213-52 aerobic exercise 233-48 anaerobic exercise 229-33 endurance exercise 244-6 changes occurring 250 energy stores 213-16 starvation 216-25 see also stress states familial hypercholesterolaemia 272

fasciculi 104 fasting 87-93

see also postabsorptive state fat, unsaturated/saturated 275 fat embolus 116 fat metabolism 17-20 calorimetry 308 digestion 60-61

small intestine 72-3 during endurance exercise 246-8 liver 93-7

non-esterified fatty acid metabolism 165

oxidation of fatty acids 94-5 triacylglycerol 166-9 whole body 164-9

carbohydrate and fat metabolism

179-84 integration 159-69, 189-91 plasma non-esterified fatty acids 160-61 plasma triacylglycerol 161-2 post absorptive state 162-4 fat mobilisation insulin 120

white adipose tissue 115, 119-20 fat storage 214-15 and leptin 122, 146-7 white adipose tissue 111, 117-19, 120-22 fatty acid synthase 248 fatty acids 17-20

absorption in small intestine 75, 77-9

amphipathic molecules 9

binding proteins 77

brain takeup 104

control of gene expression 52-4

dietary 274

glucose-fatty acid cycle 180, 182-4

insulin control 28

and ketone bodies, starvation 221

in liver 93-7

long-chain 9

metabolism oxidation in liver 94-5 skeletal muscle 109-10, 247-8 starvation 221 monoacylglycol esterification pathway 77

non-esterified (NEFA) 160-65, 183, 247

metabolism 163, 165

plasma 160-61 oxidation liver 94-5 muscle 247-8 release from adipose tissue 186 saturation state 19 skeletal muscle 109-10 structures 19, 20 tissue characteristics 37-9 transport into mitochondria 95 transporters 32, 39, 40 fibrates 279 foam cells 269, 277

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 138 force 226

GS proteins 143 G-proteins 42, 208 gall bladder 66 function 67 ganglia 200 gastric function 62-6 gastric inhibitory peptide 69, 147-8 gastric lipase 65 gastrin 64, 70 gene expression amino acids 56

carbohydrate responsive genes 51-2 cholesterol 54-6 control of gene expression 49-56 fatty acids 52-4 insulin 47-8 glial cells 197 glucagon and exercise 242 and insulin 206 pancreas 136 glucagon-like peptide 147 glucocorticoids 142-3 glucokinase 50, 86-7, 91, 133-4 glucose concentrations 152-7

microvascular disease 294-6 gluconeogenesis 87, 89-93, 95, 154-5 glucose-alanine cycle 184-5 in stress states 217-19 glucose-fatty acid cycle 180, 182-4 glucose-lactic acid (Cori) cycle 184, 221

metabolism 50 calorimetry 308 disposal after meal 152, 158-9

energy yields 162 hormonal regulation 85-7 liver 85-93

postabsorptive state 153-5 postmeal 155-7 skeletal muscle 108-9 starvation 221 transport 33-7 renal threshold 288 structure 14

transporters, GLUT family 33-7, 73,

76, 103, 108 utilization, adrenergic stimulation

209-10 see also exercise glucose paradox 92 glucose tolerance test 289 glucose-6-phosphatase 27 glucose-6-phosphate 86 GLUT family, glucose transporters

33-7, 73, 76, 103, 108 glutamate dehydrogenase 101, 175 glutamine 127, 175-7 glutamine synthetase 175-7 glycation, non-enzymatic, proteins 296 glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 119 glycogen 15-16 glycogenesis 88-9 glycogenosis 48, 86-9, 207-8, 235 obligatory, muscle contraction 241 loading 240

metabolism post meal 155-7 stores 214, 244-5 glycogen phosphorylase 87, 231, 249 glycogen synthase 86-9, 249 glycogen synthase kinase-3 45 glycolytic pathway 90, 231-3, 236-7 glycosylation, advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) 296 gonadotropins 137 growth hormone 137-89 aerobic exercise 243

heart 110-11 heparan sulphate 118 hepatic circulation 68, 82-3 hepatic lipase 258 hepatocytes 83-102 hexokinase 50

see also glucokinase hexosamine pathway, diabetes mellitus 297

hibernation 114 histamine 63 HMG-CoA 98

HMG-CoA reductase 54, 99, 272 hormones 130-50

anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)

138-9 counter-regulatory 92 digestion 69-71 and gene expression 47-8 longer-term control of enzyme activity 47-56

posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) 139

short-term control of enzyme activity 41-7

hunger, and satiety 302-4 hydrophobic/hydrophilic molecules 7 hypercholesterolaemia 271 hyperglycaemia 288, 290 hyperlipidaemias classification 271 primary/secondary 271 hyperlipoproteinaemias, primary/

secondary 272-5 hypertriglyceridaemia 271 hypertrophy, vs hyperplasia 249 hypoglycaemia 205, 207 hypothalamus 136-7, 198-9 hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) 56

ileal brake 71

ileocaecal valve 79

ileum see small intestine incretins 147-8

infections, stress effects 205-6

injury glycerol and non-esterified (NEFA)

fatty acids 210 stress effects 205-6 inotropic effect 145 insulin and adrenaline 206

cephalic phase of secretion 211

control of fatty acids 28

control of gene expression 47-8

fat mobilisation 120

genes in energy metabolism 50

and glucagon 206

muscle action 108-9

and noradrenaline 206

postabsorptive state 155-7

synthesis 133-6

and triacylglycerol metabolism 267-8 insulin receptors 42, 135 insulin resistance 286-7, 295, 316 insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) 138 interstitial fluid, and capillaries 22-4 intestine 147-8 intima 262 ionisation state 8, 9 islets of Langerhans 132, 135 isometric contraction 225

jejunum 66

ketone bodies fasting 165 fat metabolism 164 ketogenesis 95-6 starvation 221, 223 kidney 123-5

energy metabolism 124-5 metabolism in starvation 222 structure/function 123-4 kinases 46 Kupffer cells 83

lactate, ATP generation 76, 232 large intestine, absorption 79-80 lecethin-cholesterol acyl transferase

(LCAT) 258, 263 leptin 122, 146-7, 303-6 lipase hepatic 258

hormone-sensitive 120, 163 pancreatic 73 see also lipoprotein lipase lipids chemical structure 10 digestion/absorption in small intestine

75, 77-9 energy yields 162 excess 116

lipogenesis 50, 52, 180 lipolysis 119-20 metabolism 50 selective lipid uptake 264 synthesis in liver 96-7 see also triacylglycerol lipoprotein(s) 253-80

atherogenic phenotype 277

classification 254-5

high density (HDL) 255, 263-6

HDL-cholesterol 268, 275-9 metabolism 263-5 low density (LDL) 255, 261-3 LDL receptor 261, 262 LDL-receptor-related protein (LRP) 259 structure 254

very low density (VLDL) 255,

260-61, 267-8 see also triacylglycerols lipoprotein lipase 37, 110, 118, 167-9, 258

common saturable removal mechanism 267

lipoprotein metabolism cellular cholesterol content regulation

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Diet Tweak System

Diet Tweak System

Trying To Lose Weight Can Be Tough. But... Not Losing Weight and Gaining What You Lost Back, Sucks. If you've ever felt that no matter what you do to lose weight nothing seems to work. If you've ever felt that there has got to be some kind of a system or way to lose weight...but just have not found it yet.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment