Biomarkers of satiety and satiation could be defined as physiological measures that relate to subjectively rated appetite and/or actual food intake. Markers can be either indicators of appetite, or they can be proven to be causal factors of appetite (Diplock et al., 1999). Biomarkers should be:
• able to give relatively immediate outcomes to enable interventions on a reasonable time scale;
• validated and of high quality;
• clearly linked to the phenomenon rather than accurately measured;
• sensitive and specific, and reproduced by many centers;
• measurable in easily accessible biological materials (like urine and blood) according to ethical standards and minimally invasive;
• developed on the understanding that dynamic measurements are as useful as, or more useful than, static ones.
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